Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
Index Copernicus (ICV 2020) – 128.41
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ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
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Dental and Medical Problems

2012, vol. 49, nr 4, October-December, p. 588–593

Publication type: review article

Language: English

Environmental Aetiology of Malocclusions – Review of the Literature

Etiologia środowiskowa wad zgryzu – przegląd piśmiennictwa

Patrycja Pietrzak1,B,E,F, Wojciech Hanke2,A,D

1 Department of Orthodontics, Medical University in Lodz, Stomatology Institute, Lodz, Poland

2 Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Lodz, Poland

Abstract

Malocclusion is a lack of balance between bones of the facial skeleton, size and shape of teeth, tongue, lips and cheeks, which can be seen as an aesthetic problem. The most common and most frequent environmental aetiologic factors, which can cause malocclusion, are parafunctions (digit sucking, nail biting, bruxism) and dysfunctions (e.g. mouth breathing; infantile type of swallowing). Digit and pacifier sucking are one of the most frequent parafunctions and may cause Class II malocclusions, increased overjet, decreased overbite, open bite, posterior crossbite with smaller maxillary width. Dysfunctions such as persistent infantile type of swallowing observed together with parafunctions may result in an increase of malocclusion severity. In children with persistent infantile type of swallowing Class II malocclusion, increase in both maxillary and mandibular overjet, open bite, crossbite, crowdings in upper arch can be observed. The duration of any parafunction or dysfunction is also important. Habits, which are seen at or beyond 48 months of age, almost always cause malocclusion. Sometimes separating one single aetiologic factor in each case is difficult. Therefore, the environmental influence on the aetiology of malocclusions remains a complex issue.

Streszczenie

Wada zgryzu to brak równowagi między kośćmi twarzowej części czaszki, wielkością i kształtem zębów, językiem, wargami i policzkami, co może być postrzegane jako problem estetyczny. Najczęściej spotykanymi środowiskowymi czynnikami etiologicznymi, mogącymi powodować wadę zgryzu są parafunkcje (ssanie kciuka, obgryzanie paznokci, bruksizm) oraz dysfunkcje (np. oddychanie przez usta, niemowlęcy typ połykania). Ssanie kciuka i smoczka to jedne z najczęstszych parafunkcji mogących powodować wady dotylne, zwiększony nagryz poziomy, zmniejszony nagryz pionowy, zgryz otwarty, zgryz krzyżowy w odcinkach bocznych ze zmniejszoną szerokością szczęki. Występowanie razem dysfunkcji, np. przetrwałego niemowlęcego typu połykania, z parafunkcjami może nasilić wadę zgryzu. U dzieci z przetrwałym niemowlęcym typem połykania można zaobserwować wady dotylne, wzrost nagryzu poziomego zarówno w szczęce, jak i żuchwie, zgryz otwarty, zgryz krzyżowy, stłoczenia w łuku górnym. Czas trwania jakiejkolwiek parafunkcji lub dysfunkcji jest również ważny. Nawyki, które są obserwowane w lub po 48. miesiącu życia prawie zawsze powodują wady zgryzu. Wyodrębnienie pojedynczego czynnika etiologicznego w każdym przypadku może być trudne. W związku z tym środowiskowy wpływ na etiologię wad zgryzu pozostaje złożonym zagadnieniem.

Key words

parafunctions, dysfunctions, malocclusions

Słowa kluczowe

parafunkcje, dysfunkcje, wady zgryzu

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