Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
Index Copernicus (ICV 2021) – 132.50
MEiN – 70 pts
CiteScore (2021) – 2.0
JCI (2021) – 0.5
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ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
Periodicity – quarterly

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Dental and Medical Problems

2022, vol. 59, nr 4, October-December, p. 555–564

doi: 10.17219/dmp/148051

Publication type: original article

Language: English

License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY 3.0)

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Toczewska J, Maciejczyk M, Zalewska A, Konopka T. Gingival fluid and saliva concentrations of selected non-enzymatic antioxidants in periodontitis. Dent Med Probl. 2022;59(4):555–564. doi:10.17219/dmp/148051

Gingival fluid and saliva concentrations of selected non-enzymatic antioxidants in periodontitis

Joanna Toczewska1,B,C,D, Mateusz Maciejczyk2,B,C,E, Anna Zalewska3,A,E,F, Tomasz Konopka1,A,B,E,F

1 Department of Periodontology, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

2 Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Ergonomics, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland

3 Experimental Dentistry Laboratory, Medical University of Bialystok, Poland


Background. Due to their low specificity, non-enzymatic antioxidants play a significant role in the protection of organisms against free radicals. They are normally sourced from the diet, and independently react with oxidizing molecules and their products.
Objectives. The study aimed to determine the concentrations of selected non-enzymatic antioxidants (uric acid (UA), reduced glutathione (GSH) and polyphenols) in the gingival fluid and saliva of patients diagnosed with periodontitis according to the current criteria.
Material and methods. This prospective case–control study included 50 patients with periodontitis, who were divided into 2 groups depending on disease severity, along with 25 healthy controls. Unstimulated saliva, stimulated saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were collected from all subjects, and nonenzymatic antioxidant concentrations were determined.
Results. Significantly lower concentrations of all tested non-enzymatic antioxidants were observed in the gingival fluid as well as in the unstimulated and stimulated saliva of patients with periodontitis (p < 0.05). Moreover, the concentration of GSH was a parameter that differentiated the various degrees of periodontitis (p < 0.05). A significantly lower concentration of GSH was found in the stimulated saliva of patients with moderate progression as compared to those with fast progression of the disease (p < 0.05).
Conclusions. The continuation of research on the GSH concentrations in the gingival fluid and saliva may be useful in the context of biomarkers for periodontitis progression.

Key words

periodontal disease, gingival crevicular fluid, salivary diagnostics

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