Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
Index Copernicus (ICV 2021) – 132.50
MEiN – 70 pts
CiteScore (2021) – 2.0
JCI (2021) – 0.5
Average rejection rate (2022) – 79.69%
ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
Periodicity – quarterly

Download original text (EN)

Dental and Medical Problems

2022, vol. 59, nr 4, October-December, p. 547–554

doi: 10.17219/dmp/134749

Publication type: original article

Language: English

License: Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported (CC BY 3.0)

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

Cite as:

Kantorowicz M, Olszewska-Czyż I, Lipska W, et al. Impact of dietary habits on the incidence of oral diseases. Dent Med Probl. 2022;59(4):547–554. doi:10.17219/dmp/134749

Impact of dietary habits on the incidence of oral diseases

Małgorzata Kantorowicz1,A,B,C,D,F, Iwona Olszewska-Czyż1,B,C,E, Weronika Lipska1,B,C,E, Emilia Kolarzyk2,A,C,E, Maria Chomyszyn-Gajewska1,A,C,E,F, Dagmara Darczuk1,C,E,F, Tomasz Kaczmarzyk1,C,E,F

1 Department of Periodontology and Oral Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland

2 Department of Hygiene and Dietetics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland


Background. Diet is a factor that can modify the course of caries, dental erosion and periodontal diseases.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of dietary habits and the anthropometric parameters on oral health.
Material and methods. 50 females and 45 males aged 19–21 years were examined in a cross-sectional study. Oral health was assessed utilizing selected dental indices: approximal plaque index (API), bleeding on probing (BoP), community periodontal index (CPI), and DMFT (D – decayed, M – missing, F – filled, T – teeth). In addition, dental erosion was assessed. Anthropometric measurements included body mass, height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, skinfold thickness, fatty and lean body mass, body fat percentage, and total body water. The frequency of consumption of food products was determined with the use of the Questionnaire on Food Products Frequency Intake. Student’s t tests, the χ2 tests and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to analyze the results.
Results. The average DMFT was 9.92, API was 52.97% and BoP was 20.46%. Dental erosion was observed in 44.21% of cases. A total of 11.58% of the study population were classified as CPI 0, 30.53% as CPI 1 and 57.89% as CPI 2. The consumption of crisps and cereal products increased caries (p = 0.003). Dental erosion was associated with the consumption of fruit, vegetables, meat, fish, and alcoholic beverages. The consumption of sugar, sweets and alcoholic beverages increased API and BoP. Caries rarely occurred in people who ate fruit and vegetables on a daily basis. The anthropometric parameters were associated with oral hygiene, gingivitis and body weight disorders (p < 0.05).
Conclusions. Rational nutrition not only plays a role in the development of general systemic diseases, but also has an effect on oral health. Besides providing instructions on oral hygiene, dentists should also assess the eating habits of their patients.

Key words

nutritional status, diet, students, oral health

References (26)

  1. Modéer T, Blomberg C, Wondimu B, Lindberg T, Marcus C. Association between obesity and periodontal risk indicators in adolescents. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2011;6(2–2):e264-e270. doi:10.3109/17477166.2010.495779
  2. Sonnenschein SK, Meyle J. Local inflammatory reactions in patients with diabetes and periodontitis. Periodontol 2000. 2015;69(1):221–254. doi:10.1111/prd.12089
  3. Mathus-Vliegen EMH, Nikkel D, Brand HS. Oral aspects of obesity. Int Dent J. 2007;57(4):249–256. doi:10.1111/j.1875-595x.2007.tb00128.x
  4. Moynihan P. The interrelationship between diet and oral health. Proc Nutr Soc. 2005;64(4):571–580. doi:10.1079/pns2005431
  5. Johansson I, Lif Holgerson P, Kressin NR, Nunn ME, Tanner AC. Snacking habits and caries in young children. Caries Res. 2010;44(5):421–430. doi:10.1159/000318569
  6. Monteagudo C, Téllez F, Heras-González L, Ibaňez-Peinado D, Mariscal-Arcas M, Olea-Serrano F. School dietary habits and incidence of dental caries. Nutr Hosp. 2015;32(1):383–388. doi:10.3305/nh.2015.32.1.9086
  7. Chapple ILC. Potential mechanisms underpinning the nutritional modulation of periodontal inflammation. J Am Dent Assoc. 2009;140(2):178–184. doi:10.14219/jada.archive.2009.0131
  8. Iwasaki M, Yoshihara A, Moynihan P, Watanabe R, Taylor GW, Miyazaki H. Longitudinal relationship between dietary ω-3 fatty acids and periodontal disease. Nutrition. 2010;26(11–12):1105–1109. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2009.09.010
  9. Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Mattigatti S, Managoli NA, Rairam SG, Patil AM. No carious cervical lesions: abfraction. J Int Oral Health. 2013;5(5):143–146. PMID:24324319. PMCID:PMC3845299.
  10. Chomyszyn-Gajewska M. Current concepts on erosive tooth wear – review of literature [in Polish]. Czas Stomatol. 2007;60(8):519–526.
  11. Trzcionka A, McDowell A. Wpływ diety na stan tkanek twardych zęba. Twój Prz Stomatol. 2014;32(7–8):35–37.
  12. Waszkiel D. Diet as an important factor in the etiology of dental erosions [in Polish]. Wiad Lek. 2004;57(11–12):647–652. PMID:15865243.
  13. Herman K. Influence of vegetarian diet on dental erosion development [in Polish]. Dent Med Probl. 2005;42(4):457–463.
  14. Al-Zahrani MS. Increased intake of dairy products is related to lower periodontitis prevalence. J Periodontol. 2006;77(2):289–294. doi:10.1902/jop.2006.050082
  15. Dietrich T, Nunn M, Dawson-Hughes B, Bischoff-Ferrari HA. Association between serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and gingival inflammation. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005;82(3):575–580. doi:10.1093/ajcn.82.3.575
  16. Kuzmanova D, Jansen IDC, Schoenmaker T, et al. Vitamin C in plasma and leucocytes in relation to periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol. 2012;39(10):905–912. doi:10.1111/j.1600-051X.2012.01927.x
  17. Tezal M, Frossi SG, Ho AW, Genco RJ. Alcohol consumption and periodontal disease. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. J Clin Periodontol. 2004;31(7):484–488. doi:10.1111/j.1600-051X.2004.00503.x
  18. Irie K, Tomotuji T, Tamaki N, et al. Effects of ethanol consumption on periodontal inflammation in rats. J Dent Res. 2008;87(5):456–460. doi:10.1177/154405910808700511
  19. Merchant AT, Pitiphat W, Franz M, Joshipura KJ. Whole-grain and fiber intakes and periodontitis risk in men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(6):1395–1400. doi:10.1093/ajcn/83.6.1395
  20. Lula EC, Ribeiro CC, Hugo FN, Alves CM, Silva AA. Added sugars and periodontal disease in young adults: An analysis of NHANES III data. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(4):1182–1187. doi:10.3945/ajcn.114.089656
  21. Baumgartner S, Imfeld T, Schicht O, Rath C, Persson RE, Persson GR. The impact of the stone age diet on gingival conditions in the absence of oral hygiene. J Periodontol. 2009;80(5):759–768. doi:10.1902/jop.2009.080376
  22. Konopka T, Matuszewska A, Chrzęszczyk D, Zawada Ł. Body mass index and selected periodontal clinical parameters [in Polish]. Dent Med Probl. 2011;48(2):189–197. Accessed December 1, 2020.
  23. Salekzamani Y, Shirmohammadi A, Rahbar M, Shakouri SK, Nayebi F. Association between human body composition and periodontal disease. ISRN Dent. 2011;2011:863847. doi:10.5402/2011/863847
  24. Benguigui C, Bongard V, Ruidavets JB, et al. Evaluation of oral health related to body mass index. Oral Dis. 2012;18(8):748–755. doi:10.1111/j.1601-0825.2012.01940.x
  25. Suvan L, Petrie A, Moles DR, et al. Body mass index as a predictive factor of periodontal therapy outcomes. J Dent Res. 2014;93(1):49–54. doi:10.1177/0022034513511084
  26. Ekuni D, Mizutani S, Kojima A, et al. Relationship between increases in BMI and changes in periodontal status: A prospective cohort study. J Clin Periodontol. 2014;41(8):772–778. doi:10.1111/jcpe.12273