Dental and Medical Problems
2020, vol. 57, nr 2, April-June, p. 185–190
Publication type: original article
Influence of porcelain firing on changes in the marginal fit of metal-ceramic fixed partial dental prostheses fabricated with laser sintering: An in vivo study
Wpływ spiekania ceramiki na zmiany integracji brzeżnej mostów metalowo- -ceramicznych wykonywanych laserową synteryzacją – badanie in vivo
1 Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Damascus University, Syria
2 Department of Fixed Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Al-Hawash Private University, Homs, Syria
Background. Marginal fit is the most important criterion in the evaluation of the clinical acceptability of fixed restorations. Due to cement solubility and plaque retention, marginal gaps are potentially harmful to both the teeth and the periodontal tissues.
Objectives. The aim of the study was to investigate the accuracy of the fit of dental metal-ceramic bridges manufactured with the use of direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), and to explore the effects of porcelain firing on the marginal, axial and occlusal fit of metal-ceramic frameworks.
Material and Methods. The study involved 10 patients with 3-unit metal-ceramic restorations produced using the DMLS technique. Using the silicone replica technique, we examined the marginal, axial and occlusal fit of the dental bridges before and after ceramic firing. The Shapiro–Wilks normality test and Student’s paired t‑test were implemented to analyze the mean differences in the marginal, axial and occlusal fit of the restorations before and after ceramic firing. A 95% confidence interval (CI) and discrepancy values at the level of 1% and 0.1% (p > 0.05) were applied.
Results. All the mean values of the measurements of marginal (156.08 μm), axial (95.75 μm) and occlusal (252.83 μm) gaps were lower before ceramic veneering than after ceramic veneering, when the mean value for the marginal gap was 178.17 μm, for the axial gap – 106.75 μm and for the occlusal gap – 266.00 μm.
Conclusion. Porcelain firing caused no statistically significant differences in the discrepancy values of marginal, axial and occlusal fit. For clinical application, further improvement of the DMLS system is highly recommended. Marginal gaps in DLSM bridges significantly exceed the permissible inaccuracy values of 100–120 μm for prosthetic restorations.
laser, fitting, prosthesis, in vivo study, porcelain
laser, dopasowanie, proteza, badanie in vivo, ceramika
- Lüthy H, Filser F, Loeffel O, Schumacher M, Gauckler LJ, Hammerle CHF. Strength and reliability of four-unit all ceramic posterior bridges. Dent Mater. 2005;21(10):930–937.
- Pjetursson BE, Sailer I, Makarov NA, Zwahlen M, Thoma DS. All-ceramic or metal-ceramic tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs)? A systematic review of the survival and complication rates. Part II: Multiple-unit FDPs. Dent Mater. 2015;31(6):624–639.
- Sulaiman F, Chai J, Jameson LM, Wozniak WT. A comparison of the marginal fit of In-Ceram, IPS Empress and Procera crowns. Int J Prosthodont. 1997;10(5):478–484.
- Willer J, Rossbach A, Weber HP. Computer-assisted milling of dental restorations using a new CAD/CAM data acquisition system. J Prosthet Dent. 1998;80(3):346–353.
- Yeo IS, Yang JH, Lee JB. In vitro marginal fit of three all-ceramic crown systems. J Prosthet Dent. 2003;90(5):459–464.
- Kokubo Y, Tsumita M, Kano T, Sakurai S, Fukushima S. Clinical marginal and internal gaps of zirconia all-ceramic crowns. J Prosthodont Res. 2011;55(1):40–43.
- O’Brien WJ. Dental Materials and Their Selection. 4th ed. Hanover Park, IL: Quintessence Publishing; 2008:243–252.
- Naylor WP. Introduction to Metal-Ceramic Technology. 2nd ed. Hanover Park, IL: Quintessence Publishing; 2009:83–107.
- Strub JR, Rekow ED, Witkowski S. Computer-aided design and fabrication of dental restorations: Current systems and future possibilities. J Am Dent Assoc. 2006;137(9):1289–1296.
- Örtorp A, Jönsson D, Mouhsen A, Vult von Steyern P. The fit of cobalt-chromium three-unit fixed dental prostheses fabricated with four different techniques: A comparative in vitro study. Dent Mater. 2011;27(4):356–363.
- Azari A, Nikzad S. The evolution of rapid prototyping in dentistry: A review. Rapid Prototyping J. 2009;15(3):216–225.
- Sun J, Zhang FQ. The application of rapid prototyping in prosthodontics. J Prosthodont. 2012;21(8):641–644.
- Dikova T, Vasilev T, Dzhendov D, Ivanova E. Investigation the fitting accuracy of cast and SLM Co-Cr dental bridges using CAD software. J of IMAB. 2017;23(3):1688–1696.
- Kruth JP, Mercelis P, Van Vaerenbergh J, van Vaerenbergh J, Froyen L, Rombouts M. Binding mechanisms in selective laser sintering and selective laser melting. Rapid Prototyping J. 2005;11(1):26–36.
- Harish V, Mohamed Ali SA, Jagadesan N, et al. Evaluation of internal and marginal fit of two metal ceramic system – in vitro study. J Clin Diag Res. 2014;8(12):ZC53–ZC66.
- Kotila J, Syvänen T, Hänninen J, Latikka M, Nyrhilä O. Direct metal laser sintering – new possibilities in biomedical part manufacturing. Mater Sci Forum. 2007;534–536:461–464.
- Zeng L, Zhang Y, Liu Z, Wei B. Effects of repeated firing on the marginal accuracy of Co-Cr copings fabricated by selective laser melting. J Prosthet Dent. 2015;113(2):135–139.
- Nawafleh NA, Mack F, Evans J, Mackay J, Hatamleh MM. Accuracy and reliability of methods to measure marginal adaptation of crowns and FDPs: A literature review. J Prosthodont. 2013;22(5):419–428.
- Aljerf L. Effect of thermal-cured hydraulic cement admixtures on the mechanical properties of concrete. Interceram. 2015;64(8);346–356.
- Aljerf L. Reduction of gas emission resulting from thermal ceramic manufacturing processes through development of industrial conditions. Sci J King Faisal Univ. 2016;17(1):1–10.
- Gemalmaz D, Alkumru HN. Marginal fit changes during porcelain cycles. J Prosthet Dent. 1995;73(1):49–54.
- Shokry TE, Attia M, Mosleh I, Elhosary M, Hamza T, Shen C. Effect of metal selection and porcelain firing on the marginal accuracy of titanium-based metal ceramic restorations. J Prosthet Dent. 2010;103(1):45–52.
- Wolfart S, Wegner SM, Al-Halabi A, Kern M. Clinical evaluation of marginal fit of a new experimental all-ceramic system before and after cementation. Int J Prosthodont. 2003;16(6):587–592.
- Okutan M, Heydecke G, Butz F. Fracture load and marginal fit of shrinkage-free ZrSiO4 all-ceramic crowns after chewing simulation. J Oral Rehabil. 2006;33(11):827–832.
- Kaleli N, Saraç D. Influence of porcelain firing and cementation on the marginal adaptation of metal-ceramic restorations prepared by different methods. J Prosthet Dent. 2017;117(5):656–661.
- Önöral Ö, Ulusoy M, Seker E, Etikan İ. Influence of repeated firings on marginal, axial, axio-occlusal, and occlusal fit of metal-ceramic restorations fabricated with different techniques. J Prosthet Dent. 2018;120(3):415–420.
- Kocaağaoğlu H, Albayrak H, Kilinc HI, Gümüs HÖ. Effect of repeated ceramic firings on the marginal and internal adaptation of metal-ceramic restorations fabricated with different CAD-CAM technologies. J Prosthet Dent. 2017;118(5):672–677.
- Naumann M, Ernst J, Reich S, Weißhaupt P, Beuer F. Galvano- vs. metal-ceramic crowns: Up to 5-year results of a randomized split-mouth study. Clin Oral Investig. 2011;15(5):657–660.
- Rahme HY, Tehini GE, Adib SM, Ardo AS, Rifai KT. In vitro evaluation of the “replica technique” in the measurement of the fit of Procera crowns. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2008;9(2):25–32.
- Revilla-León M, Özcan M. Additive manufacturing technologies used for 3D metal printing in dentistry. Curr Oral Health Rep. 2017;4(3):201–208.
- Sinirlioglu MC. Rapid manufacturing of dental and medical parts via LaserCUSING® technology using titanium and CoCr powder materials. US–Turkey Workshop On Rapid Technologies, Istanbul, Turkey, September 24, 2009:89–92.
- Chua CK, Leong KF, Lim CS. Rapid prototyping: Principles and Applications. 3rd ed. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing; 2010:199–299.
- Laser sintering-versatile production of tooling inserts, prototype parts and end products from metal powder. International Powder Metallurgy Directory (IPMD). January 12, 2011. http://www.ipmd.net/articles/articles/001087.html. Accessed on April 1, 2011.
- Kokubo Y, Ohkubo C, Tsumita M, Miyashita A, Vult von Steyern P, Fukushima S. Clinical marginal and internal gaps of Procera AllCeram crowns. J Oral Rehabil. 2005;32(7):526–530.
- Tara MA, Eschbach S, Bohlsen F, Kern M. Clinical outcome of metal-ceramic crowns fabricated with laser-sintering technology. Int J Prosthodont. 2011;24(1):46–48.