Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
Index Copernicus (ICV 2020) – 128.41
MEiN – 70 pts
CiteScore (2021) – 2.0
JCI – 0.5
Average rejection rate (2021) – 81.35%
ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
Periodicity – quarterly

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Dental and Medical Problems

2020, vol. 57, nr 1, January-March, p. 19–24

doi: 10.17219/dmp/113179

Publication type: original article

Language: English

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Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Open Access

Effect of smoking on the proliferation capacity and osteogenic potential of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs)

Wpływ nikotynizmu na zdolności proliferacyjne oraz potencjał kościotwórczy ludzkich komórek macierzystych miazgi zębowej

Amany Hany Mohamed Kamel1,A,B,C,D,E,F, Samia Moustafa Kamal1,A,E,F, Nermeen AbuBakr1,A,E,F

1 Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Egypt

Abstract

Background. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have proven to have a high potentiality in tissue regeneration. However, genetic diseases or certain environmental risk factors, such as smoking, may compromise the functioning of MSCs, thus leading to a change in the expected clinical outcomes.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the proliferation capacity and osteogenic potential of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in smokers in comparison with non-smokers.
Material and Methods. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from the cultured dental pulp tissue from the third molars of 5 smokers and 5 non-smokers. The proliferation capacity of DPSCs derived from both groups was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) proliferation assay. Alizarin red staining and the gene expression analysis of the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OC) genes were performed in order to assess osteogenic differentiation.
Results. The MTT proliferation assay revealed that the mean absorbance rate of the DPSCs of the nonsmokers was significantly higher than that of the group of smokers (p < 0.0001). When stained with alizarin red after 21 days of osteogenic induction, fewer calcium deposits were observed among the smokers. Moreover, the ALP and OC gene expression was significantly higher in the differentiated DPSCs of the nonsmokers (p < 0.05).
Conclusion. The group of smokers showed a reduced cell viability. The expression of the ALP and OC genes was lower in the DPSCs of the smokers. Therefore, smoking has a negative impact on the proliferation and regenerative potential of human MSCs.

Key words

smoking, dental pulp, mesenchymal stem cells, osteogenic

Słowa kluczowe

nikotynizm, miazga zębowa, mezenchymalne komórki macierzyste, kościotwórczy

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