Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
Index Copernicus (ICV 2021) – 132.50
MEiN – 70 pts
CiteScore (2021) – 2.0
JCI (2021) – 0.5
Average rejection rate (2022) – 79.69%
ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
Periodicity – quarterly

Download original text (EN)

Dental and Medical Problems

2020, vol. 57, nr 1, January-March, p. 19–24

doi: 10.17219/dmp/113179

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Open Access

Effect of smoking on the proliferation capacity and osteogenic potential of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs)

Wpływ nikotynizmu na zdolności proliferacyjne oraz potencjał kościotwórczy ludzkich komórek macierzystych miazgi zębowej

Amany Hany Mohamed Kamel1,A,B,C,D,E,F, Samia Moustafa Kamal1,A,E,F, Nermeen AbuBakr1,A,E,F

1 Department of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University, Egypt


Background. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have proven to have a high potentiality in tissue regeneration. However, genetic diseases or certain environmental risk factors, such as smoking, may compromise the functioning of MSCs, thus leading to a change in the expected clinical outcomes.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the proliferation capacity and osteogenic potential of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) in smokers in comparison with non-smokers.
Material and Methods. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from the cultured dental pulp tissue from the third molars of 5 smokers and 5 non-smokers. The proliferation capacity of DPSCs derived from both groups was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) proliferation assay. Alizarin red staining and the gene expression analysis of the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OC) genes were performed in order to assess osteogenic differentiation.
Results. The MTT proliferation assay revealed that the mean absorbance rate of the DPSCs of the nonsmokers was significantly higher than that of the group of smokers (p < 0.0001). When stained with alizarin red after 21 days of osteogenic induction, fewer calcium deposits were observed among the smokers. Moreover, the ALP and OC gene expression was significantly higher in the differentiated DPSCs of the nonsmokers (p < 0.05).
Conclusion. The group of smokers showed a reduced cell viability. The expression of the ALP and OC genes was lower in the DPSCs of the smokers. Therefore, smoking has a negative impact on the proliferation and regenerative potential of human MSCs.

Key words

smoking, dental pulp, mesenchymal stem cells, osteogenic

Słowa kluczowe

nikotynizm, miazga zębowa, mezenchymalne komórki macierzyste, kościotwórczy

References (26)

  1. Biehl JK, Russell B. Introduction to stem cell therapy. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2009;24(2):98–105.
  2. Caplan AI, Dennis JE. Mesenchymal stem cells as trophic mediators. J Cell Biochem. 2006;98(5):1076–1084.
  3. Maumus M, Guérit D, Toupet K, Jorgensen C, Noël D. Mesenchymal stem cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine: Applications in rheumatology. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2011;2(2):14.
  4. Lee JJ, Patel R, Biermann JS, Dougherty PJ. The musculoskeletal effects of cigarette smoking. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013;95(9):850–859.
  5. Kim BS, Kim SJ, Kim HJ, et al. Effects of nicotine on proliferation and osteoblast differentiation in human alveolar bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Life Sci. 2012;90(3–4):109–115.
  6. Shen Y, Liu HX, Ying XZ, et al. Dose-dependent effects of nicotine on proliferation and differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells and the antagonistic action of vitamin C. J Cell Biochem. 2013;114(8):1720–1728.
  7. Zhou Z, Li B, Dong Z, et al. Nicotine deteriorates the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells through α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor regulating wnt pathway. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e83102.
  8. Ng TK, Carballosa CM, Pelaez D, et al. Nicotine alters MicroRNA expression and hinders human adult stem cell regenerative potential. Stem Cells Dev. 2013;22(5):781–790.
  9. Ng TK, Huang L, Cao D, et al. Cigarette smoking hinders human periodontal ligament-derived stem cell proliferation, migration and differentiation potentials. Sci Rep. 2015;5:7828.
  10. Jędrzejas M, Skowron K, Czekaj P. Stem cell niches exposed to tobacco smoke. Przegl Lek. 2012;69(10):1063–1073.
  11. Greenberg JM, Carballosa CM, Cheung HS. Concise review: The deleterious effects of cigarette smoking and nicotine usage and mesenchymal stem cell function and implications for cell-based therapies. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2017;6(9):1815–1821.
  12. Liu J, Yu F, Sun Y, et al. Concise reviews: Characteristics and potential applications of human dental tissue‐derived mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cells. 2015;33(3):627–638.
  13. Wei X, Ling J, Wu L, Liu L, Xiao Y. Expression of mineralization markers in dental pulp cells. J Endod. 2007;33(6):703–708.
  14. Zhang W, Walboomers XF, Shi S, Fan M, Jansen JA. Multilineage differentiation potential of stem cells derived from human dental pulp after cryopreservation. Tissue Eng. 2006;12(10):2813–2823.
  15. Koyama N, Okubo Y, Nakao K, Bessho K. Evaluation of pluripotency in human dental pulp cells. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;67(3):501–506.
  16. Cheng PH, Snyder B, Fillos D, Ibegbu CC, Huang AH, Chan AW. Postnatal stem/progenitor cells derived from the dental pulp of adult chimpanzee. BMC Cell Biol. 2008;9:20.
  17. d’Aquino R, Graziano A, Sampaolesi M, et al. Human postnatal dental pulp cells co-differentiate into osteoblasts and endotheliocytes: A pivotal synergy leading to adult bone tissue formation. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14(6):1162–1171.
  18. Zhou Y, Gan Y, Taylor HS. Cigarette smoke inhibits recruitment of bone-marrow-derived stem cells to the uterus. Reprod Toxicol. 2011;31(2):123–127.
  19. Chen Y, Guo Q, Pan X, Qin L, Zhang P. Smoking and impaired bone healing: Will activation of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway be the bridge? Int Orthop. 2011;35(9):1267–1270.
  20. Ryan H, Trosclair A, Gfroerer J. Adult current smoking: Differences in definitions and prevalence estimates – NHIS and NSDUH, 2008. J Environ Public Health. 2012;2012:918368.
  21. Yasui T, Mabuchi Y, Morikawa S, et al. Isolation of dental pulp stem cells with high osteogenic potential. Inflamm Regen. 2017;37:8.
  22. Kamel AHM, Kamal SM, Rashed LA, Ahmed NE. Proliferation capacity and osteogenic potential of human gingival stem cells versus human dental pulp stem cells. J Stem Cells. 2019;14(1):21–30.
  23. Kim SY, Kang KL, Lee JC, Heo JS. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 and β4 subunits contribute nicotine-induced apoptosis in periodontal ligament stem cells. Mol Cells. 2012;33(4):343–350.
  24. Frescaline G, Bouderlique T, Huynh MB, Papy-Garcia D, Courty J, Albanese P. Glycosaminoglycans mimetics potentiate the clonogenicity, proliferation, migration and differentiation properties of rat mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cell Res. 2012;8(2):180–192.
  25. Teti G, Salvatore V, Focaroli S, et al. In vitro osteogenic and odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells seeded on carboxymethyl cellulose-hydroxyapatite hybrid hydrogel. Front Physiol. 2015;6:297.
  26. Tabatabaei FS, Torshabi M. In vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of endometrial stem cells and dental pulp stem cells. Cell Tissue Bank. 2017;18(2):239–247.