Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
Index Copernicus (ICV 2020) – 128.41
MEiN – 70 pts
CiteScore (2021) – 2.0
JCI – 0.5
Average rejection rate (2021) – 81.35%
ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
Periodicity – quarterly

Download original text (EN)

Dental and Medical Problems

2019, vol. 56, nr 4, October-December, p. 395–400

doi: 10.17219/dmp/110453

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Open Access

Effects of the carbonic anhydrase VI gene polymorphisms on dental caries: A meta-analysis

Wpływ polimorfizmów genu anhydrazy węglanowej VI na próchnicę zębów – metaanaliza

Omer Hatipoglu1,A,B,C,D,E,F, Faruk Saydam2,B,E,F

1 Department of Restorative Dentistry, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Turkey

2 Department of Medical Biology, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan University, Rize, Turkey


Background. Carbonic anhydrase VI (CA VI) is considered to greatly participate in the buffering of saliva, ion transport, the regulation of pH, secretory processes, and saliva production. Various studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between CA VI and dental caries.
Objectives. The goal of this study was to make a meta-analysis of studies that examined the effects of the CA VI gene polymorphisms on dental caries.
Material and Methods. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement guide was followed. Electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Library) were scanned by 2 independent researchers. The funnel plot, Egger’s regression and Begg and Mazumdar’s rank correlation test were used to determine publication bias. Cohen’s d was used to measure the effect size.
Results. Four studies were included in the meta-analysis; a total of 3 polymorphisms (rs2274327, rs2274328, rs2274333) and a total of 13 polymorphism models were analyzed. According to Egger’s regression and the Begg and Mazumdar’s test, the meta-analysis had no significant publication bias (p > 0.05). The highest susceptibility effect was noticed in the rs2274328 (AA vs CC) model (d = 0.18; 95% CI (confidence interval): −1.77, 2.13), but this effect was not significant (p = 0.237), and the highest protective effect was observed in the rs2274328 (AA vs AC) model (d = −0.13, 95% CI: −1.36, 1.11), but this effect was not significant, either (p = 0.195). No association was found between any of the polymorphism models and dental caries (p > 0.05).
Conclusion. Even though CA VI plays an important role in the buffering of saliva, it was shown that polymorphisms in the CA VI gene did not affect the process of dental caries.

Key words

single-nucleotide polymorphism, meta-analysis, caries susceptibility, dental caries resistance, human genome

Słowa kluczowe

polimorfizm pojedynczego nukleotydu, metaanaliza, podatność na próchnicę, odporność na próchnicę zębów, ludzki genom

References (24)

  1. Watt RG. Strategies and approaches in oral disease prevention and health promotion. Bull World Health Organ. 2005;83(9):711–718.
  2. Anderson M. Risk assessment and epidemiology of dental caries: Review of the literature. Pediatr Dent. 2002;24(5):377–385.
  3. Azevedo LF, Pecharki GD, Brancher JA, et al. Analysis of the association between lactotransferrin (LTF) gene polymorphism and dental caries. J Appl Oral Sci. 2010;18(2):166–170.
  4. Bayram M, Deeley K, Reis MF, et al. Genetic influences on dental enamel that impact caries differ between the primary and permanent dentitions. Eur J Oral Sci. 2015;123(5):327–334.
  5. Brancher JA, Pecharki GD, Doetzer AD, et al. Analysis of polymorphisms in the lactotransferrin gene promoter and dental caries. Int J Dent. 2011;2011:571726.
  6. Izakovicova Holla L, Borilova Linhartova P, Lucanova S, et al. GLUT2 and TAS1R2 polymorphisms and susceptibility to dental caries. Caries Res. 2015;49(4):417–424.
  7. de Almeida Pdel V, Grégio AM, Machado MA, de Lima AA, Azevedo LR. Saliva composition and functions: A comprehensive review. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2008;9(3):72–80.
  8. Hara AT, Zero DT. The caries environment: Saliva, pellicle, diet, and hard tissue ultrastructure. Dent Clin North Am. 2010;54(3):455–467.
  9. Lips A, Antunes LS, Antunes LA, et al. Salivary protein polymorphisms and risk of dental caries: A systematic review. Braz Oral Res. 2017;31:e41.
  10. Goto T, Shirakawa H, Furukawa Y, Komai M. Decreased expression of carbonic anhydrase isozyme II, rather than of isozyme VI, in submandibular glands in long-term zinc-deficient rats. Br J Nutr. 2008;99(2):248–253.
  11. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. Int J Surg. 2010;8(5):336–341.
  12. Guo C, Wen L, Song JK, et al. Significant association between interleukin-10 gene polymorphisms and cervical cancer risk: A meta-analysis. Oncotarget. 2018;9(15):12365–12375.
  13. Field AP, Gillett R. How to do a meta‐analysis. Br J Math Stat Psychol. 2010;63(Pt 3):665–694.
  14. Kimoto M, Kishino M, Yura Y, Ogawa Y. A role of salivary carbonic anhydrase VI in dental plaque. Arch Oral Biol. 2006;51(2):117–122.
  15. Öztürk LK, Furuncuoğlu H, Atala MH, Uluköylü O, Akyüz S, Yarat A. Association between dental-oral health in young adults and salivary glutathione, lipid peroxidation and sialic acid levels and carbonic anhydrase activity. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2008;41(11):956–959.
  16. Kivelä J, Parkkila S, Parkkila AK, Rajaniemi H. A low concentration of carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme VI in whole saliva is associated with caries prevalence. Caries Res. 1999;33(3):178–184.
  17. Frasseto F, Parisotto TM, Peres RC, Marques MR, Line SR, Nobre Dos Santos M. Relationship among salivary carbonic anhydrase VI activity and flow rate, biofilm pH and caries in primary dentition. Caries Res. 2012;46(3):194–200.
  18. Szabó I. Carbonic anhydrase activity in the saliva of children and its relation to caries activity. Caries Res. 1974;8(2):187–191.
  19. Esberg A, Haworth S, Brunius C, Lif Holgerson P, Johansson I. Carbonic anhydrase 6 gene variation influences oral microbiota composition and caries risk in Swedish adolescents. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):452.
  20. Yarat A, Ozturk LK, Ulucan K, Akyuz S, Atala H, Isbir T. Carbonic anhydrase VI exon 2 genetic polymorphism in Turkish subjects with low caries experience (preliminary study). In Vivo. 2011;25(6):941–944.
  21. Peres RC, Camargo G, Mofatto LS, et al. Association of polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase 6 gene with salivary buffer capacity, dental plaque pH, and caries index in children aged 7–9 years. Pharmacogenomics J. 2010;10(2):114–119.
  22. Sengul F, Kilic M, Gurbuz T, Tasdemir S. Carbonic anhydrase VI gene polymorphism rs2274327 relationship between salivary para­meters and dental-oral health status in children. Biochem Genet. 2016;54(4):467–475.
  23. Yildiz G, Ermis RB, Calapoglu NS, Celik EU, Türel GY. Gene–environment interactions in the etiology of dental caries. J Dent Res. 2016;95(1):74–79.
  24. Li ZQ, Hu XP, Zhou JY, Xie XD, Zhang JM. Genetic polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase VI gene and dental caries susceptibility. Genet Mol Res. 2015;14(2):5986–5993.