Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
Index Copernicus (ICV 2021) – 132.50
MEiN – 70 pts
CiteScore (2021) – 2.0
JCI (2021) – 0.5
Average rejection rate (2022) – 79.69%
ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
Periodicity – quarterly

Download original text (EN)

Dental and Medical Problems

2019, vol. 56, nr 4, October-December, p. 373–377

doi: 10.17219/dmp/109903

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Open Access

Hypodontia – not only an orthodontic problem

Hipodoncja – problem nie tylko ortodontyczny

Zofia Kielan-Grabowska1,A,B,C,D, Beata Kawala1,E,F, Joanna Antoszewska-Smith1,D,E,F

1 Division of Maxillofacial Orthopedics and Orthodontics, Department of Maxillofacial Orthopedics and Orthodontics, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland


Background. The meta-analysis of the data collected in the years 1939–1993 clearly shows an increasing incidence of hypodontia. The disorder is characterized by a congenital absence of deciduous or permanent teeth. It is a significant esthetical and functional problem, which may negatively affect the patient’s psychosocial development.
Objectives. The aim of the study was to determine the scale of hypodontia using a sample of Polish orthodontic patients.
Material and Methods. The orthopantomograms and medical records of 674 patients aged 6–15 years (376 girls and 298 boys) were analyzed in order to identify dental agenesis. Deciduous and wisdom teeth were excluded from the study. Data regarding gender, the location of the disorder as well as the number and type of missing buds was recorded.
Results. Hypodontia was found in 11.6% of the subjects (7.6% girls and 4% boys), more often in the mandible (44.9%) than in the maxilla (28.2%) or in both jaws (26.9%), and these differences were statistically significant (p = 0.096). The occurrence rates of uniand bilateral hypodontia were similar: 51.3% and 48.7%, respectively. The incidence of left-sided hypodontia (37.2%) significantly prevailed over rightsided hypodontia (14.1%) (p < 0.01). Tooth 35 was the most frequently missing one (13.5%).
Conclusion. The large discrepancy in hypodontia prevalence indicates that geographical differences and varying sample sizes greatly affect the results of studies. The literature lacks comprehensive studies regarding hypodontia in Poland. More studies with similar sample sizes and selection criteria need to be carried out. Through an early detection of hypodontia, it is possible to plan comprehensive, interdisciplinary treatment. Regardless of the discrepancies in the literature as to the exact location of the problem, hypodontia affects over 10% of the population of patients treated orthodontically, which justifies the need to study this issue.

Key words

hypodontia, dental agenesis, oligodontia

Słowa kluczowe

hipodoncja, agenezja zębów, oligodoncja

References (24)

  1. Mattheeuws N, Dermaut L, Martens G. Has hypodontia increased in Caucasians during the 20th century? A meta-analysis. Eur J Orthod. 2004;26(1):99–103.
  2. Jędryszek A, Kmiecik M, Paszkiewicz A. Review of modern know­ledge on hypodontia [in Polish]. Dent Med Probl. 2009;46(1):118–125.
  3. Biedziak B. Aetiology and occurence of tooth agenesis – review of the literature [in Polish]. Dent Med Probl. 2004;41(3):531–535.
  4. Rakhshan V. Congenitally missing teeth (hypodontia): A review of the literature concerning the etiology, prevalence, risk factors, patterns and treatment. Dent Res J. 2015;12(1):1–13.
  5. Fekonja A. Hypodontia in orthodontically treated children. Eur J Orthod. 2005;27(5):457–460.
  6. Dyras M, Jankowska K, Czupryna S. The estimation of the deve­lopment disorders prevalence in patients treated in the Orthodontic Department of the Stomatological Institute in Collegium Medi­cum Jagiellonian University of Cracow [in Polish]. Dent Med Probl. 2003;40(2):349–354.
  7. Gregorczyk-Maga I, Merta U, Kołodziej I, Jurczak A, Wiśniewska G. Prosthetic methods of hypodontia treatment on the basis of the lite­rature [in Polish]. Nowa Stomatol. 2013;18(4):171–174.
  8. Grotowski TA. Implant-based prosthesis in cases of hypodontia of upper lateral incisors. Long term observations [in Polish]. Magazyn Stomatol. 2006;16(4):50–57.
  9. Mahaney MC, Fujiwara TM, Morgan K. Dental agenesis in the Dariusleut Hutterite Brethren: Comparisons to selected Caucasoid population surveys. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1990;82(2):165–177.
  10. Khalaf K, Miskelly J, Voge E, Macfarlane TV. Prevalence of hypodontia and associated factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Orthod. 2014;41(4):299–316.
  11. Polder BJ, Van’t Hof MA, Van der Linden FP, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM. A meta-analysis of the prevalence of dental agenesis of permanent teeth. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2004;32(3):217–226.
  12. Lo Muzio L, Mignogna MD, Bucci P, Sorrentino F. Statistical study of the incidence of agenesis in a sample of 1,529 subjects [in Italian]. Minerva Stomatol. 1989;38(9):1045–1051.
  13. Polastri F, Cerato E, Gallesio C. The clinico-radiological assessment of dental anomalies with real and apparent numerical defects [in Italian]. Minerva Stomatol. 1991;40(6):415–423.
  14. Gracco ALT, Zanatta S, Forin Valvecchi F, Bignotti D, Perri A, Baciliero F. Prevalence of dental agenesis in a sample of Italian orthodontic patients: An epidemiological study. Prog Orthod. 2017;18:33.
  15. Celikoglu M, Kazanci F, Miloglu O, Oztek O, Kamak H, Ceylan I. Frequency and characteristics of tooth agenesis among an orthodontic patient population. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2010;15(5):e797–e801.
  16. Sisman Y, Uysal T, Gelgor IE. Hypodontia. Does the prevalence and distribution pattern differ in orthodontic patients? Eur J Dent. 2007;1(3):167–173.
  17. Amini F, Rakhshan V, Babaei P. Prevalence and pattern of hypodontia in the permanent dentition of 3,374 Iranian orthodontic patients. Dent Res J (Isfahan). 2012;9(3):245–250.
  18. Chung CJ, Han JH, Kim KH. The pattern and prevalence of hypodontia in Koreans. Oral Dis. 2008;14(7):620–625.
  19. Behr M, Proff P, Leitzmann M, et al. Survey of congenitally missing teeth in orthodontic patients in Eastern Bavaria. Eur J Orthod. 2011;33(1):32–36.
  20. Grzesiewska K, Hornik E, Pisarska H. Lack of permanent tooth buds in connection with malocclusion of patients treated in the Orthodontic Department of Silesian Medical Academy [in Polish]. Czas Stomat. 1978;21(5):307–309.
  21. Goya HA, Tanaka S, Maeda T, Akimoto Y. An orthopantomographic study of hypodontia in permanent teeth of Japanese pediatric patients. J Oral Sci. 2008;50(2):143–150.
  22. Gomes RR, da Fonseca JA, Paula LM, Faber J, Acevedo AC. Prevalence of hypodontia in orthodontic patients in Brasilia, Brazil. Eur J Orthod. 2010;32(3):302–306.
  23. Wong AT, McMillan AS, McGrath C. Oral health-related quality of life and severe hypodontia. J Oral Rehabil. 2006;33(12):869–873.
  24. Muller TP, Hill IN, Peterson AC, Blayney JR. A survey of congenitally missing permanent teeth. J Am Dent Assoc. 1970;81(1):101–107.