Dental and Medical Problems
2019, vol. 56, nr 4, October-December, p. 373–377
Publication type: original article
Hypodontia – not only an orthodontic problem
Hipodoncja – problem nie tylko ortodontyczny
1 Division of Maxillofacial Orthopedics and Orthodontics, Department of Maxillofacial Orthopedics and Orthodontics, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland
Background. The meta-analysis of the data collected in the years 1939–1993 clearly shows an increasing incidence of hypodontia. The disorder is characterized by a congenital absence of deciduous or permanent teeth. It is a significant esthetical and functional problem, which may negatively affect the patient’s psychosocial development.
Objectives. The aim of the study was to determine the scale of hypodontia using a sample of Polish orthodontic patients.
Material and Methods. The orthopantomograms and medical records of 674 patients aged 6–15 years (376 girls and 298 boys) were analyzed in order to identify dental agenesis. Deciduous and wisdom teeth were excluded from the study. Data regarding gender, the location of the disorder as well as the number and type of missing buds was recorded.
Results. Hypodontia was found in 11.6% of the subjects (7.6% girls and 4% boys), more often in the mandible (44.9%) than in the maxilla (28.2%) or in both jaws (26.9%), and these differences were statistically significant (p = 0.096). The occurrence rates of uniand bilateral hypodontia were similar: 51.3% and 48.7%, respectively. The incidence of left-sided hypodontia (37.2%) significantly prevailed over rightsided hypodontia (14.1%) (p < 0.01). Tooth 35 was the most frequently missing one (13.5%).
Conclusion. The large discrepancy in hypodontia prevalence indicates that geographical differences and varying sample sizes greatly affect the results of studies. The literature lacks comprehensive studies regarding hypodontia in Poland. More studies with similar sample sizes and selection criteria need to be carried out. Through an early detection of hypodontia, it is possible to plan comprehensive, interdisciplinary treatment. Regardless of the discrepancies in the literature as to the exact location of the problem, hypodontia affects over 10% of the population of patients treated orthodontically, which justifies the need to study this issue.
hypodontia, dental agenesis, oligodontia
hipodoncja, agenezja zębów, oligodoncja
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