Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
Index Copernicus (ICV 2020) – 128.41
MEiN – 70 pts
CiteScore (2021) – 2.0
JCI – 0.5
Average rejection rate (2021) – 81.35%
ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
Periodicity – quarterly

Download PDF

Dental and Medical Problems

2019, vol. 56, nr 2, April-June, p. 167–172

doi: 10.17219/dmp/105561

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Open Access

SEM and EDS study of TotalFill BC Sealer and GuttaFlow Bioseal root canal sealers

Badania SEM i EDS uszczelniaczy kanałowych TotalFill BC Sealer i GuttaFlow Bioseal

Przemysław Reszka1,A,B,C,D,F, Alicja Nowicka2,E,F, Włodzimierz Dura3,C,E,F, Ewa Marek3,C,E,F, Mariusz Lipski3,A,D,E,F

1 Private Dental Practice, Koszalin, Poland

2 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Pomeranian Medical University of Szczecin, Poland

3 Department of Preclinical Conservative Dentistry and Preclinical Endodontics, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Pomeranian Medical University of Szczecin, Poland


Background. Recently, a new generation of calcium silicate-based root canal sealers has been developed. These new types of sealers have the ability to set in wet environment, have high alkalinity and present potential antimicrobial activity.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition and microstructure of 2 novel calcium silicate-containing root canal sealers – TotalFill® BC Sealer and GuttaFlow® Bioseal.
Material and Methods. The tested sealers were prepared according to the manufacturers’ instructions. Sixteen cylindrical dishes (inner diameter: 4 mm; height: 3 mm) were placed on a glass Petri dish and packed with the materials. The Petri dish was transferred to an incubator. After the sealers set, excess material was removed with diamond discs and polishing paste. The materials were assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) X‑ray microanalysis.
Results. Both TotalFill BC Sealer and GuttaFlow Bioseal contained calcium, zirconium, oxygen, carbon, silicon, and a trace of sodium. In the case of TotalFill BC Sealer, trace amounts of copper and technetium were also present, and for GuttaFlow Bioseal, iron, zinc, and a trace of magnesium and hafnium were noted. No bismuth was found. Both of the assessed sealers contained fine particles embedded in the matrix; however, GuttaFlow Bioseal also had larger particles with a diameter of 2–10 μm.
Conclusion. TotalFill BC Sealer represents a higher degree of purity in comparison with GuttaFlow Bioseal. The clinical implications of heavy metals present in GuttaFlow Bioseal need to be investigated. Both materials have a fine particle structure, which is desirable for root canal sealers.

Key words

heavy metals, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, calcium silicatebased root canal sealers

Słowa kluczowe

metale ciężkie, skaningowa mikroskopia elektronowa, rentgenowska spektroskopia energodyspersyjna, uszczelniacze kanałowe na bazie krzemianów wapnia

References (27)

  1. Tomson RM, Polycarpou N, Tomson PL. Contemporary obturation of the root canal system. Br Dent J. 2014;216(6):315–322.
  2. Duarte MAH, Marciano MA, Vivan RR, Tanomaru Filho M, Tanomaru JMG, Camilleri J. Tricalcium silicate-based cements: Properties and modifications. Braz Oral Res. 2018;32(Suppl 1):e70.
  3. Evans JT, Simon JH. Evaluation of the apical seal produced by injected thermoplasticized gutta-percha in the absence of smear layer and root canal sealer. J Endod. 1986;12(2):101–107.
  4. Hata I, Kawazoe S, Toda T, Weine F. Sealing ability of Thermafil with or without sealer. J Endod. 1992;18(7):322–336.
  5. Ørstavik D. Materials used for root canal obturation: Technical, biological and clinical testing. Endod Topics. 2005;12(1):25–38.
  6. Urban K, Neuhaus J, Donnermeyer D, Schäfer E, Dammaschke T. Solubility and pH value of 3 different root canal sealers: A long-term investigation. J Endod. 2018;44(11):1736–1740.
  7. Prüllage RK, Urban K, Schäfer E, Dammaschke T. Material properties of a tricalcium silicate-containing, a mineral trioxide aggregate-containing, and an epoxy resin-based root canal sealer. J Endod. 2016;42(12):1784–1788.
  8. Donnermeyer D, Dornseifer P, Schäfer E, Dammaschke T. The push-out bond strength of calcium silicate-based endodontic sealers. Head Face Med. 2018;14(1):13.
  9. Donnermeyer D, Vahdat-Pajouh N, Schäfer E, Dammaschke T. Influence of the final irrigation solution on the push-out bond strength of cal­cium silicate-based, epoxy resin-based and silicone-based endodontic sealers. Odontology. Epub 2018. doi:10.1007/s10266-018-0392-z
  10. Jung S, Libricht V, Sielker S, Hanisch MR, Schäfer E, Dammaschke T. Evaluation of the biocompatibility of root canal sealers on human periodontal ligament cells ex vivo. Odontology. 2019;107(1):54–63.
  11. Jung S, Sielker S, Hanisch MR, Libricht V, Schäfer E, Dammaschke T. Cytotoxic effects of four different root canal sealers on human osteoblasts. PLoS One. 2018;13(3):e0194467.
  12. Kebudi Benezra M, Schembri Wismayer P, Camilleri J. Interfacial characteristics and cytocompatibility of hydraulic sealer cements. J Endod. 2018;44(6):1007–1017.
  13. Donnermeyer D, Bürklein S, Dammaschke T, Schäfer E. Endodontic sealers based on calcium silicates: A systematic review. Odontology. Epub 2018. doi:10.1007/s10266-018-0400-3
  14. Carvalho NK, Prado MC, Senna PM, et al. Do smear-layer removal agents affect the push-out bond strength of calcium-silicate based endodontic sealers? Int Endod J. 2017;50(6):612–619.
  15. Gokturk H, Bayram E, Bayram HM, Aslan T, Ustun Y. Effect of double antibiotic and calcium hydroxide pastes on dislodgement resistance of an epoxy resin-based and two calcium silicate-based root canal sealers. Clin Oral Investig. 2017;21(4):1277–1282.
  16. Agrafioti A, Koursoumis AD, Kontakiotis EG. Re-establishing apical patency after obturation with gutta-percha and two novel calcium silicate-based sealers. Eur J Dent. 2015;9(4):457–461.
  17. Gandolfi MG, Siboni F, Prati C. Properties of a novel polysiloxane-guttapercha calcium silicate-bioglass-containing root canal sealer. Dent Mater. 2016;32(5):e113–e126.
  18. Reszka P, Kucharski Ł, Klimowicz A, Lipski M. Alkalizing properties of selected calcium-silicate root canal sealers. An in vitro study [in Polish]. Pomeranian J Life Sci. 2018;64(4):36–41.
  19. Reszka P, Nowicka A, Lipski M, Dura W, Droździk A, Woźniak K. A comparative chemical study of calcium silicate containing and epoxy resin-based root canal sealers. Biomed Res Int. 2016;2016:9808432.
  20. Siboni F, Taddei P, Zamparini F, Prati C, Gandolfi MG. Properties of BioRoot RCS, a tricalcium silicate endodontic sealer modified with povidone and polycarboxylate. Int Endod J. 2017;50(Suppl 2):e120–e136.
  21. Gaetke LM, Chow-Johnson HS, Chow CK. Copper: Toxicological relevance and mechanisms. Arch Toxicol. 2014;88(11):1929–1938.22. Touchefeu Y, Franken P, Harrington KJ. Radiovirotherapy: Principles and prospects in oncology. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18(22):3313–3320.
  22. Możyńska J, Metlerski M, Lipski M, Nowicka A. Tooth discoloration induced by different calcium silicate-based cements: A systematic review of in vitro studies. J Endod. 2017;43(10):1593–1601.
  23. Torabinejad M, Parirokh M, Dummer PMH. Mineral trioxide aggregate and other bioactive endodontic cements: An updated overview – part II: Other clinical applications and complications. Int Endod J. 2018;51(3):284–317.
  24. Walsh RM, He J, Schweitzer J, Opperman LA, Woodmansey KF. Bioactive endodontic materials for everyday use: A review. Gen Dent. 2018;66(3):48–51.
  25. Hoikkala NPJ, Wang X, Hupa L, Smått JH, Peltonen J, Vallittu PK. Dissolution and mineralization characterization of bioactive glass ceramic containing endodontic sealer Guttaflow Bioseal. Dent Mat J. 2018;37(6):988–994.
  26. Akcay M, Arslan H, Durmus N, Mese M, Capar ID. Dentinal tubule penetration of AH Plus, iRoot SP, MTA fillapex, and guttaflow bioseal root canal sealers after different final irrigation procedures: A confocal microscopic study. Lasers Surg Med. 2016;48(1):70–76.
  27. Komabayashi T, Spångberg LS. Comparative analysis of the particle size and shape of commercially available mineral trioxide aggregates and Portland cement: A study with a flow particle image analyzer. J Endod. 2008;34(1):94–98.