Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
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ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
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Dental and Medical Problems

2018, vol. 55, nr 3, July-September, p. 233–240

doi: 10.17219/dmp/94303

Publication type: original article

Language: English

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Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Open Access

Evaluation of anatomical structures and variations in the maxilla and the mandible before dental implant treatment

Ocena struktur anatomicznych i ich zmienności w szczęce oraz żuchwie przed leczeniem implantologicznym

Tolga Genç1,B, Onurcem Duruel1,D, Hüseyin Burak Kutlu1,B,E, Erhan Dursun1,B,E, Erdem Karabulut2,C, Tolga Fikret Tözüm3,A,C,E,F

1 Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey

2 Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey

3 Department of Periodontics, College of Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, United States


Background. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) allows a detailed visualization of the anatomic structures of the jaw. There have been presented variations of the anatomic structures between genders after evaluating the structures in detail.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomic variations of the jaws according to gender and age in an effort to avoid complications during implant surgeries.
Material and Methods. In this retrospective study, a total of 159 scans (87 of the maxilla, 72 of the mandible) were evaluated in order to analyze the effect of age and gender on these anatomic variations.
Results. According to statistical analysis, gender affected the crestal dimensions above the mandibular canal and sinus mucosal thickening. The mean value of the width of the mandibular canal, the distance between the mandibular canal and the superior border of the mandible, the distance between the mandibular canal and the inferior border of the mandible, the diameter of the mental foramen, the distance between the mental foramen and the inferior border of the mandible, and the distance between the lingual foramen and the inferior border of the mandible were significantly greater in female patients than in male subjects (p < 0.001). However, sinus mucosal thickening and the diameter of the posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAA) were significantly greater in males as compared to females (p < 0.001). While the configuration of the nasopalatine canal was funnel-shaped in female patients, this configuration was found to be cylinder-shaped in male subjects. A high prevalence of sinus septa (43.7%) and PSAA (87.4%) was detected in the scans.
Conclusion. When planning dental implants, radiographic examinations, alongside clinical examinations, have become necessary to reduce the risk of implant surgery failure and complications. The CBCT imaging is a valuable tool to determine the anatomic structures before carrying out any surgeries, including implant surgery. Gender affects anatomical variations and dimensions significantly, even when they are not affected by age. Large population focused and multicenter studies may provide a better understanding of the need to evaluate the anatomical structures in detail.

Key words

dental implant, mandible, maxilla, anatomy, cone beam computed tomography

Słowa kluczowe

implant stomatologiczny, żuchwa, szczęka, anatomia, stożkowa tomografia komputerowa

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