Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
Index Copernicus (ICV 2020) – 128.41
MEiN – 70 pts
CiteScore (2021) – 2.0
JCI – 0.5
Average rejection rate (2021) – 81.35%
ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
Periodicity – quarterly

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Dental and Medical Problems

2018, vol. 55, nr 1, January-March, p. 23–28

doi: 10.17219/dmp/81747

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Open Access

Chronic kidney disease in children: Assessment of oral health status

Przewlekła niewydolność nerek u dzieci – ocena stanu zdrowia jamy ustnej

Claudio Andaloro1,A,B,C,D,E,F, Concetto Sessa2,B,C, Nicolò Bua3,B,C, Ignazio La Mantia4,A,B,C,E,F

1 ENT Unit, Santa Marta e Santa Venera Hospital, Acireale, Italy

2 Nephrology and Dialysis Center “Tike”, Siracusa, Italy

3 Dental Unit, Department of Medical Surgery Specialities, University of Catania, Italy

4 Department of Medical Sciences, Surgical and Advanced Technologies, University of Catania, Italy

Abstract

Background. Oral disease may be more prevalent in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) due to the underlying pathology and its treatment. In children, it can elicit a wide spectrum of oral manifestations, including saliva changes, mucosal lesions, oral infection, gingivitis, and dental anomalies (mostly hypoplasia).
Objectives. The aim of the study was to determine the oral health status in a group of children with CKD and to compare with that from healthy controls.
Material and Methods. A clinical cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2016 and September 2017 on 126 pediatric patients. Oral findings in a group of 65 children suffering from CKD were compared with a control group consisting of 61 individuals, free of any disease. We obtained an assessment of the oral health status by collecting carious, debris, calculus, gingival conditions, hypoplasia, and salivary flow rate data by using specific indexes. Medical and dental history was obtained for each subject.
Results. We found that children with CKD have a lower prevalence of caries for both permanent dentition (p = 0.019) and primary dentition (p = 0.008), while the prevalence of calculus, debris, gingivitis and enamel hypoplasia seems to be higher (all p < 0.005). A significantly reduced salivary flow rate was also noted in the CKD children, both in unstimulated (p = 0.037) and stimulated (p = 0.026) conditions.
Conclusion. CKD pediatric patients are more likely to present oral and dental changes than healthy children, so proper oral care and preventive measures should be taken to avoid potentially severe dental problems.

Key words

oral health, enamel hypoplasia, chronic kidney disease

Słowa kluczowe

stan zdrowia jamy ustnej, hipoplazja szkliwa, przewlekła niewydolność nerek

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