Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
Index Copernicus (ICV 2020) – 128.41
MEiN – 70 pts
CiteScore (2021) – 2.0
JCI – 0.5
Average rejection rate (2021) – 81.35%
ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
Periodicity – quarterly

Download PDF

Dental and Medical Problems

2017, vol. 54, nr 4, October-December, p. 397–401

doi: 10.17219/dmp/80101

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Open Access

Hand eczema among Lebanese dentists: An epidemiological study

Wyprysk rąk u libańskich lekarzy dentystów – badanie epidemiologiczne

Samar Bou Jaoude1,A,B,C,D, Nada Naaman1,E, Edgard Nehme1,E, Jeanine Gebeily1,E, Maha Daou2,A,E,F

1 Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon

2 Research Section, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon


Background. Dentists are at risk of developing hand eczema, as are most people who work in the health care field.
Objectives. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hand eczema and allergies among a sample of Lebanese dentists to understand their probable causes and propose solutions to reduce their occurrence.
Material and Methods. A total of 314 Lebanese dentists, who practiced different specialties of dentistry, after giving verbal consent, completed an anonymous questionnaire that focused on occupational diseases. This study was approved by the ethics committee of Saint-Joseph University (USJ) of Beirut, Lebanon. The statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software for Windows. The alpha error was set to 0.05.
Results. The mean age of the participants was 39.2 (±11.66) years (58.6% male). The results showed that 15.3% (n = 48) of the surveyed dentists developed allergies to latex gloves, 2.5% (n = 8) developed allergies to resins, and 3.8% (n = 12) developed allergies to glutaraldehyde.
Conclusion. This study showed that a large number of Lebanese dentists suffer from hand eczema. It is important to note that not all skin reactions are related to gloves or natural rubber latex. Dentists should be aware of hand eczema symptoms, the common allergens contained in dental materials, the prevention and the appropriate treatment of occupational skin diseases.

Key words

latex, occupational disease, gloves, glutaraldehyde, methacrylate

Słowa kluczowe

lateks, choroba zawodowa, rękawice, aldehyd glutarowy, metakrylan

References (30)

  1. Leggat PA, Smith DR. Prevalence of hand dermatoses related to latex exposure amongst dentists in Queensland. Austr Int Dent J. 2006;56:154–158.
  2. Syed M, Chopra R, Sachdev V. Allergic reactions to dental materials: A systematic review. J Clin Diagn Res JCDR. 2015;9:ZE04.
  3. Rubel DM, Watchorn RB. Allergic contact dermatitis in dentistry. Austr J Dermatol. 2000;41:63-69;quiz 70–71.
  4. Toraason M, Sussman G, Biagini R, Meade J, Beezhold D, Germolec D. Latex allergy in the workplace. Toxicol Sci Off J Soc Toxicol. 2000;58:5–14.
  5. Wallenhammar LM, Ortengren U, Andreasson H, et al. Contact allergy and hand eczema in Swedish dentists. Contact Dermat. 2000;43:192–199.
  6. Munksgaard EC, Hansen EK, Engen T, Holm U. Self-reported occupational dermatological reactions among Danish dentists. Eur J Oral Sci. 1996;104:396–402.
  7. Sayegh Ghoussoub M, Ghoussoub K, Moucharrafieh L, Khoury A, Sleilaty G, Rifaï K. Musculo-skeletal problems among Lebanese dental surgeons. Occurrence and risk factors. J Méd Liban Leban Med J. 2005;53:21–27.
  8. Tabachnick B, Fidell L. Using Multivariate Statistics. 6th ed. New York: 2013.
  9. Lönnroth EC, Shahnavaz H. Hand dermatitis and symptoms from the fingers among Swedish dental personnel. Swed Dent J. 1998;22:23–32.
  10. Nielsen J. The occurrence and course of skin symptoms on the hands among female cleaners. Contact Dermat. 1996;34:284–291.
  11. Amin A, Palenik CJ, Cheung SW, Burke FJ. Latex exposure and allergy: A survey of general dental practitioners and dental students. Int Dent J. 1998;48:77–83.
  12. Hamann CP, Turjanmaa K, Rietschel R, et al. Natural rubber latex hypersensitivity: Incidence and prevalence of type I allergy in the dental professional. J Am Dent Assoc. 1998;129:43–54.
  13. Ramos L, Cabral R, Gonçalo M. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by acrylates and methacrylates: A 7-year study. Contact Dermat. 2014;71:102–107.
  14. Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R. Occupational skin allergy in the dental profession. Dermatol Clin. 1994;12:517–532.
  15. Yoshii E. Cytotoxic effects of acrylates and methacrylates: Relationships of monomer structures and cytotoxicity. J Biomed Mater Res. 1997;37:517–524.
  16. Rashid H, Sheikh Z, Vohra F. Allergic effects of the residual monomer used in denture base acrylic resins. Eur J Dent. 2015;9:614–619.
  17. Mikov I, Turkalj I, Jovanović M. Occupational contact allergic dermatitis in dentistry. Vojnosanit Pregl. 2011;68:523–525.
  18. Munksgaard EC. Permeability of protective gloves to (di)methacrylates in resinous dental materials. Scand J Dent Res. 1992;100:189–192.
  19. Hamann CP, Rodgers PA, Sullivan KM. Occupational allergens in dentistry. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;4:403–409.
  20. Andreasson H, Boman A, Johnsson S, Karlsson S, Barregård L. On permeability of methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate through protective gloves in dentistry. Eur J Oral Sci. 2003;111:529–535.
  21. Nakamura M, Oshima H, Hashimoto Y. Monomer permeability of disposable dental gloves. J Prosthet Dent. 2003;90:81–85.
  22. Roche E, de la Cuadra J, Alegre V. Sensitization to acrylates caused by artificial acrylic nails: Review of 15 cases. Actas Dermo-Sifiliográficas. 2008;99:788–794.
  23. Shaffer MP, Belsito DV. Allergic contact dermatitis from glutaraldehyde in health-care workers. Contact Dermat. 2000;43:150–156.
  24. Gounder R, Vikas BVJ. Comparison of disinfectants by immersion and spray atomization techniques on the linear dimensional stabi­lity of different interocclusal recording materials: An in vitro study. Eur J Dent. 2016;10:7–15.
  25. Power EG, Russell AD. Sporicidal action of alkaline glutaraldehyde: Factors influencing activity and a comparison with other aldehydes. J Appl Bacteriol. 1990;69:261–268.
  26. Ravis SM, Shaffer MP, Shaffer CL, Dehkharghani S, Dehkhaghani S, Belsito DV. Glutaraldehyde-induced and formaldehyde-induced allergic contact dermatitis among dental hygienists and assistants. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003;134:1072–1078.
  27. Agrawal A, Bhatt N, Kk S, Singh K, Chaudhary H, Asawa K. Prevalence of allergy to latex gloves among dental professionals in Udaipur, Rajasthan, India. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2010;8:345–350.
  28. Scott A, Gawkrodger DJ, Yeoman C, et al. Adverse reactions to protective gloves used in the dental profession: Experience of the UK Adverse Reaction Reporting Project. Br Dent J. 2003;195:686–690.
  29. Kanerva L, Lahtinen A, Toikkanen J, et al. Increase in occupational skin diseases of dental personnel. Contact Dermat. 1999;40:104–108.
  30. Higgins CL, Palmer AM, Cahill JL, Nixon RL. Occupational skin disease among Australian healthcare workers: A retrospective analysis from an occupational dermatology clinic, 1993–2014. Contact Dermat. 2016;57:456–465.