Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
Index Copernicus (ICV 2020) – 128.41
MEiN – 70 pts
CiteScore (2021) – 2.0
JCI – 0.5
Average rejection rate (2021) – 81.35%
ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
Periodicity – quarterly

Download PDF

Dental and Medical Problems

2017, vol. 54, nr 3, July-September, p. 241–246

doi: 10.17219/dmp/76441

Publication type: original article

Language: English

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Open Access

Caries pattern in three-year old preschool children

Wzorzec próchnicy u dzieci przedszkolnych w wieku 3 lat

Dorota Olczak-Kowalczyk1,A,B,C,D,E,F, Anna Turska-Szybka1,A,D,E,F, Izabela Strużycka2,A,F, Dariusz Gozdowski3,C,E,F, Teresa Bachanek4,A,C,F, Urszula Kaczmarek5,A,C,E,F

1 Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

2 Department of Comprehensive Dentistry, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

3 Department of Experimental Design and Bioinformatics, Department of Agriculture and Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland

4 Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland

5 Department of Conservative and Pedodontics, Medical University of Wroclaw, Wrocław, Poland


Background. Analysis of the results of epidemiological studies of Polish children showed that caries in children can occur very early, and their incidence and intensity increase with age. According to an epidemiological study, 53.8% children at the age of 3 reported an average of 2.4 tooth decay. There is insufficient information about the intensity of decay, the pattern of caries in primary dentition and the treatment undertaken in the group of 3-years-old children with tooth decay.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intensity of caries and their pattern in primary dentition in 3 year-old children with early childhood caries.
Material and Methods. The study enrolled children at the age of 3 with early childhood caries included in the program “The monitoring of oral health and its determinants among Polish population in 2015”. The presence of caries, fillings and extractions was assessed in teeth and their surfaces.
Results. In 353 3-year-old children with active caries, dmft reached 4.45 ±3.63, dmfs 6.84 ±8.78. In maxilla, 13.4% of the teeth was decayed (dmft = 2.67 ±2.5), in the mandible 8.9% (dmft = 1.78 ±1.67) (p < 0.001). Mandibular molars were the most frequently affected by caries, then the maxillary central incisors and the maxillary molars. Of the surfaces affected by caries, 31.9% were proximal, 29.3% smooth and 38.3% occlusal surfaces. Fillings were stated in 6.4% of primary teeth. Due to caries, 1.2% of the teeth were extracted.
Conclusion. Caries lesions in 3-year-old children, appearing symmetrically on both sides of the dental arches, more often affect maxillary than mandibular teeth. Their appearance on the smooth and proximal surfaces of the teeth, involving more than one tooth surface, few fillings and premature incisors loss indicate significant prophylactic and therapeutic negligence.

Key words

epidemiological studies, primary dentition, distribution of caries, preschool children, treatment needs

Słowa kluczowe

badania epidemiologiczne, uzębienie mleczne, rozkład próchnicy, dzieci w wieku przedszkolnym, potrzeby w zakresie leczenia

References (29)

  1. Oral Health Database. Oral Health Country/Area Profile Project. WHO Collaborating Centre for Education, Training and Research in Oral Health.,
  2. Slabsinskiene E, Milciuviene S, Narbutaite J, et al. Severe early childhood caries and behavioral risk factors among 3-year-old children in Lithuania. Medicina (Kaunas), 2010;46:135–141.
  3. Warren JJ, Blanchette D, Dawson DV, et al. Factors associated with dental caries in a group of American Indian children at age 36 months. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2016;44:154–161.
  4. Bezgati A, Mega K, Siegenthaler D, Berisha M, Mautsch W. Dental health evaluation of children in Kosovo. Eur J Dent. 2011;5:32–39.
  5. Olczak-Kowalczyk D, Kaczmarek U, Bachanek T. Oral health condition and its condition in children 3 years of age. [In:] Monitoring of oral health of the Polish population in 2013–2015. Assessment of oral health and its condition in the Polish population aged 3, 10 and 15 in 2015. Ed. D. Olczak-Kowalczyk, Medical University of Warsaw, 2016; 49–93 [in Polish].
  6. Monitoring of oral health of the Polish population. Poland 2009, Ministry of Health, Warsaw 2009 [in Polish].
  7. Kerosuo H, Honkala E. Caries experience in the primary dentition of Tanzanian and Finnish 3-7-year-old children. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1991;19:272–276.
  8. Du M, Bian Z, Guo L, Holt R, Champion J, Bedi R. Caries patterns and their relationship to infant feeding and socio-economic status in 2–4-year-old Chinese children. Int Dent J. 2000;50:385–389.
  9. Gizani S, Vinckier F, Declerck D. Caries pattern and oral health habits in 2- to 6-year-old children exhibiting differing levels of caries. Clin Oral Investig. 1999;3:35–40.
  10. Greenwell AL, Johnsen D, DiSantis TA, Gerstenmaier J, Limbert N. Longitudinal evaluation of caries patterns form the primary to the mixed dentition. Pediatr Dent. 1990;12:278–282.
  11. Vanobbergen J, Lesaffre E, García-Zattera MJ, Jara A, Martens L, Declerck D. Caries patterns in primary dentition in 3-, 5- and 7-year-old children: Spatial correlation and preventive consequences. Caries Res. 2007;41:16–25.
  12. Leroy R, Declerck D. Impact of caries onset on number and distribution of new lesion in preschool children. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2013;23:39–47.
  13. Oral Health Surveys. Basic Methods 5th Edition. WHO Geneva, 2013.
  14. Douglass JM, Tinanoff N, Tang JM, Altman DS. Dental caries patterns and oral health behaviors in Arizona infants and toddlers. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2001;29:14–22.
  15. Psoter WJ, Morse DE, Pendrys DG, Zhang H, Mayne ST. Historical evolution of primary dentition caries patterns definitions. Pediatr Dent. 2004;26:508–511.
  16. Agarwal D, Sunitha S, Reddy CVK, Machale P. Early childhood caries prevalence, severity and pattern in 3–6 year old preschool children of Mysore City, Karnataka. Pesq Bras Odontoped Clin Integr, João Pessoa. 2012;12:561–565.
  17. Al-Malik MI, Holt RD, Bedi R. Prevalence and patterns of caries, rampant caries, and oral health in two- to five-year-old children in Saudi Arabia. J Dent Child (Chic). 2003;70:235–242.
  18. Bagińska J, Stokowska W. Caries location in particular primary teeth in 36–48 months old children in Podlasie region. Nowa Stomatol. 2004;9:147–152 [in Polish].
  19. Cadavid AS, Arango Lince CM, Jaramillo MC. Dental caries in the primary dentition of a Colombian population according to the ICDAS criteria. Braz Oral Res. 2010;24: 211–216.
  20. Wulaerhan J, Abudureyimu A, Bao XL, Zhao J. Risk determinants associated with early childhood caries in Uygur children: A preschool-based cross-sectional study. BMC Oral Health, 2014:136.
  21. Doğan D, Dülgergil ÇT, Mutluay AT, Yıldırım I, Hamidi MM, Çolak H. Prevalence of caries among preschool-aged children in a central Anatolian population. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2013;4:325–329.
  22. Santos APP, Soviero VM. Caries prevalence and risk factors among children aged 0 to 36 months. Pesqui Odontol Bras. 2002;16:203–208.
  23. Proc P, Filipińska-Skąpska R. Appraisal of the state of dentition and the needs of dental care of children up to the age of 5 in the city of Lodz. Nowa Stomatol. 2003;8:185–189 [in Polish].
  24. Grzesiak I, Kaczmarek U. Caries location in primary teeth in children aged 18–36 months living in Wrocław city. Dent Med Probl. 2006;43:215–221 [in Polish].
  25. Dimitrova MM, Kukleva MP, Kondeva VK. Specificity of caries attack in early childhood. Folia Medica, 2000;42,3:50–54.
  26. Warren JJ, Levy SM, Kanellis MJ. Dental caries in the primary dentition: Assessing prevalence of cavitated and noncavitated lesions. J Public Health Dent. 2002;62:109–114.
  27. King NM, Wu II, Tsai JS. Caries prevalence and distribution, and oral health habits of zero- to four-year-old children in Macau, China. J Dent Child (Chic). 2003;70:243–246.
  28. Ismail AI, Lim S, Sohn W, Willem JM. Determinants of early childhood caries in low-income African American young children. Pediatr Dent. 2008;30:289–296.
  29. Nørrisgaard PE, Qvist V, Ekstrand K. Prevalence, risk surfaces and inter-municipality variations in caries experience in Danish children and adolescents in 2012. Acta Odontol Scand. 2016;74:291–297.