Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
Index Copernicus (ICV 2020) – 128.41
MEiN – 70 pts
CiteScore (2021) – 2.0
JCI – 0.22
Average rejection rate (2021) – 81.35%
ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
Periodicity – quarterly

Download PDF

Dental and Medical Problems

2016, vol. 53, nr 3, July-September, p. 413–418

doi: 10.17219/dmp/62964

Publication type: review article

Language: English

Download citation:

  • BIBTEX (JabRef, Mendeley)
  • RIS (Papers, Reference Manager, RefWorks, Zotero)

Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Open Access

Genetic Aspects of Dental Caries

Genetyczne aspekty próchnicy

Joanna Kobierska-Brzoza1,A,B,C,D, Urszula Kaczmarek1,A,B,E,F

1 Department of Conservative and Pediatric Dentistry, Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław, Poland


Dental caries still remain one of the most prevalent infectious diseases, affecting populations and individuals unequivocally. It is observed that people with similar behavioral risk present different caries rates. Susceptibility to caries results from both the host and environmental factors that complement each other and may result in increased incidence of caries or greater resistance to it. Numerous studies of twins, families and animal models initiated in the early decades of the previous century provided strong evidence for the genetic component of dental caries development. The succeeding research, identifying specific genes and genetic markers and confirming the genetic correlation of dental caries, explained the reasons behind the greater susceptibility to caries in some diseases like Epidermolysis bullosa. Many inherited determinants are well established. The most recognizable are the structure of the hard dental tissue, tooth morphology including depth of occlusal fissures and surface characteristic of the enamel, time of eruption, alignment of the teeth in dental arches, flow rate of the saliva and its constituents, immunologic response to cariogenic microorganisms in oral cavity. An important role is also played by inherited thresholds for tastes and smells, which affect taste preferences and thus dietary habits and activity of specific enzymes participating in regulation processes on various stages of development and subsequent physiologic functioning of the organism. The knowledge of genetic basis of caries will enable us to identify high-risk groups and provide them with targeted screening, preventive measures and interventional strategies.

Key words

genetics, dental caries, genes

Słowa kluczowe

genetyka, próchnica, geny

References (32)

  1. Shuler Charles F.: Risks for susceptibility to dental caries. J. Dent. Educ. 2001, 65, 1038–1045.
  2. Bretz W.A., Corby P., Schork N., Hart T.: Evidence of a contribution of genetic factors to dental caries risk. J. Evid. Based Dent. Pract. 2003, 3, 185–189.
  3. Fairpo C.G.: Total caries experience in monozygotic and ike-sexed dizygotic twins of Caucasoid origin aged 5 to 15 years. Arch. Oral Biol. 1979, 24, 491–494.
  4. Bordoni N., Dono R., Manfredi C., Allegrotti I.: Prevalence of dental caries in twins. J. Dent. Child. 1973, 40, 440–443.
  5. Bretz W.A., Corby P., Hart T., Costa S., Coelho M.Q., Weyant R.J., Robinson M., Schork N.: Dental caries and microbial acid production in twins. Caries Res. 2005, 39, 168–172.
  6. Conry J.P., Messer L.B., Boraas J.C., Aeppli D.P., Bouchard T.J.: Dental caries and treatment characteristics in human twins reared apart. Arch. Oral Biol. 1993, 38, 937–943.
  7. Boraas J.C., Messer L.B., Till M.J.: A genetic contribution to dental caries, occlusion and morphology as demonstrated by twins reared apart. J. Dent. Res. 1988, 67, 1150–1155.
  8. Opal S., Garg S., Jain J., Walia I.: Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk. Aust. Dent. J. 2015, 1, 2–11.
  9. Suzuki N., Kurihara Y., Kurihara Y.: Dental caries susceptibility in mice is closely linked to the H-2 region on chromosome 17. Caries Res. 1998, 32, 262–265.
  10. Uematsu T., Nariyama M., Shimizu K., Maeda T.: Mapping of affected gene(s) to dental caries susceptibility on mouse chromosome 2. Pediatr. Dent. J. 2003, 13, 75–81.
  11. Nariyama M., Shimizu K., Uematsu T., Maeda T.: Identification of chromosomes associated with dental caries susceptibility using quantitative trait locus analysis in mice. Caries Res. 2004, 38, 79–84.
  12. Krasse B.: The Vipelolm Dental Caries Study: Recollections and reflections 50 years later. J. Dent. Res. 2001, 80, 1785–1788.
  13. Vieira A.R.: Genetics and caries – prospects. Braz. Oral Res. 2012, 26, 7–9.
  14. Renuka P., Pushpanjali K., Sangeetha R.: Review on “influence of host genes on dental caries.” J. Dent. Med. Sci. 2013, 4, 86–92.
  15. Patir A., Seymen F., Yildirim M., Deeley K., Cooper M.E., Marazita M.L.: Enamel formation genes are associated with high caries experience in Turkish children. Caries Res. 2008, 42, 394–400.
  16. Kirkham J., Robinson C., Strafford S.M., Shore RC., Bonass W.A., Brookes S.J., Wright J.T.: The chemical composition of tooth enamel in junctional epidermolysis bullosa. Arch. Oral Biol. 2000, 45, 377–386.
  17. Timothy Wright J.: Oral manifestation in the Epidermolysis Bullosa spectrum. Dermatol. Clin. 2010, 1, 159–164.
  18. Lehner T., Lamb J.R., Welsh K.L., Batchelor R.J.: Association between HLA-DR antigen and helper cell activity in the control of dental caries. Nature, 1981, 292, 770–772.
  19. Bagherian A., Nematollahi H., Afshari J.T., Moheghi N.: Comparison of allele frequency for HLA-DR and HLA-DQ between patients with ECC and caries-free children. J. Indian Soc. Pedod. Prevent. Dent. 2008, 26, 18–21.
  20. De Vries R.R., Zeylemaker P., van Palenstein-Helderman W.H., Huis Veld J.H.: Lack of association between HLADR antigens and dental caries. Tissue Antig. 1985, 25, 173–174.
  21. Senpuku H., Yanagi K., Nisizawa T.: Identification of Streptococcus mutans PAc peptide motif binding with human MHC class II molecules (DRB1-0802, 1101, 1401 and 1405). Immunol. 1998, 95, 322–330.
  22. Acton R.T.: Association of MHC genes with levels of caries inducing organisms and caries severity in African American women. Human Immunol. 1999, 60, 984–989.
  23. Aine L.: Coeliac-type permanent-tooth enamel defects. Annal. Med. 1996, 28, 9–12.
  24. Aguirre J.M., Rodriquez R., Oribe D., Vitoria J.C.: Dental enamel defects in celiac patients. Oral Surg. 1997, 84, 646–650.
  25. Sofaer J.A.: Host genes and dental caries. Br. Dent. J. 1993, 175, 403–409.
  26. Rupesh S., Nayak U.A.: Genetic sensitivity to the bitter taste of 6-n propylthiouracil: A new risk determinant for dental caries in children. J. Indian Soc. Pedod. Prev Dent. 2006, 4, 63–68.
  27. Bhasin M.K.: Genetics of castes and tribes of India: Taste sensitivity. Int. J. Hum. Genet. 2006, 6, 145–151.
  28. Mennella J.A., Pepino M.Y., Reed D.R.: Genetic and environmental determinants of bitter perception and sweet preferences. Pediatr. 2005, 1115, 216–222.
  29. Lin B.P.: Caries experience in children with various genetic sensitivity levels to the bitter taste of 6-n-propylinthiouracil (PROP). Pediatr. Dent. 2003, 25, 37–42.
  30. Zakhary G.M., Clark R.M., Bidichandani S.I., Owen W.L., Slayton R.L., Levine M.: Acidic proline-rich prorotein Db and caries in young children. J. Dent. Res. 2007, 86, 1176–1180.
  31. Renchuan T., Jurevic R., Coulton K., Marjorie T.: Salivary antimicrobial peptide expression and dental caries experience in children. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 2005, 49, 3883–3888.
  32. Wang X., Shaffer J.R., Zeng Z., Begum F.,Vieira A.R., Noel J., Anjomshoaa I., Cuenco T.K., Lee M.K., Beck J., Boerwinkle E., Cornelis M.C., Frank E., Hu B., Crosslin D.R., Laurie C.C., Nelson S.C., Doheny K.F., Pugh E., Polk E., Weyant R., Crout R., McNeil D., Weeks D.E., Feingold E., Marazita M.L.: Genome wide association scan of dental caries in the permanent dentition. BMC Oral Health, 2012, 12, 57.