Dental and Medical Problems
2016, vol. 53, nr 3, July-September, p. 413–418
Publication type: review article
Genetic Aspects of Dental Caries
Genetyczne aspekty próchnicy
1 Department of Conservative and Pediatric Dentistry, Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław, Poland
Dental caries still remain one of the most prevalent infectious diseases, affecting populations and individuals unequivocally. It is observed that people with similar behavioral risk present different caries rates. Susceptibility to caries results from both the host and environmental factors that complement each other and may result in increased incidence of caries or greater resistance to it. Numerous studies of twins, families and animal models initiated in the early decades of the previous century provided strong evidence for the genetic component of dental caries development. The succeeding research, identifying specific genes and genetic markers and confirming the genetic correlation of dental caries, explained the reasons behind the greater susceptibility to caries in some diseases like Epidermolysis bullosa. Many inherited determinants are well established. The most recognizable are the structure of the hard dental tissue, tooth morphology including depth of occlusal fissures and surface characteristic of the enamel, time of eruption, alignment of the teeth in dental arches, flow rate of the saliva and its constituents, immunologic response to cariogenic microorganisms in oral cavity. An important role is also played by inherited thresholds for tastes and smells, which affect taste preferences and thus dietary habits and activity of specific enzymes participating in regulation processes on various stages of development and subsequent physiologic functioning of the organism. The knowledge of genetic basis of caries will enable us to identify high-risk groups and provide them with targeted screening, preventive measures and interventional strategies.
genetics, dental caries, genes
genetyka, próchnica, geny
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