Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
Index Copernicus (ICV 2020) – 128.41
MEiN – 70 pts
CiteScore (2021) – 2.0
JCI – 0.22
Average rejection rate (2021) – 81.35%
ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
Periodicity – quarterly

Download PDF

Dental and Medical Problems

2015, vol. 52, nr 3, July-September, p. 366–370

Publication type: clinical case

Language: English

Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Open Access

Elongation of the Styloid Process – Eagle Syndrome – Case Reports of Patients on Dialysis

Wydłużenie wyrostka rylcowatego – zespół Eagle’a – opisy przypadku pacjentów dializowanych

Bartłomiej Iwańczyk1,A,B,E, Jacek Michał Nowak2,B,C,D, Marcin Piotr Szerszeń2,B,C,D, Piotr Regulski3,B, Andrzej Chmura4,B, Andrzej Wojtowicz1,B,F

1 Department of Oral Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, Warszawa, Poland

2 Students Scientific Group, Department of Oral Surgery, Medical University of Warsaw, Warszawa, Poland

3 Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Radiology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warszawa, Poland

4 Department of General Surgery and Transplant, Medical University of Warsaw, Warszawa, Poland


Eagle syndrome or syndrome of the prolonged styloid process of the temporal bone is a rare syndrome, whose cause is an extended styloid process and often concomitant with an ossification of stylohyoid ligaments. A patient typically reports to a doctor because of sudden severe pain in his ear, throat, floor of the mouth, the oral side of the neck or jaw angle around the tonsillar fossa. This pain occurs when you open your mouth, turn the head or swallow. Additional symptoms which are coexisting may be drooling, dysphagia, odynophagia, trismus, sensation of something in the throat. Pain symptoms occur suddenly and last from a few seconds to several minutes. The method of treatment for Eagle Syndrome can be twofold and depends on the presented type of Eagle Syndrome. Nonsurgical treatment methods, such as injecting the tonsillar fossa after the palatal tonsil with local anesthetic agents and steroids, are used in the classic type. Unfortunately, in most cases, the results are not satisfactory. Two patients recently came to the clinic presenting the above-mentioned symptoms of varying severity. Panoramic radiographs and CBCT revealed much elongated styloid processes.

Key words

styloid process, Eagle syndrome, odynophagia

Słowa kluczowe

wyrostek rylcowaty, zespół Eagle’a, odynofagia

References (14)

  1. Eagle W.W: Elongated styloid process: further observations and a new syndrome. Arch. Otolaryngol. 1948, 47, 630–640.
  2. Eagle W.W: Elongated styloid process: symptoms and treatment. Arch. Otolaryngol. 1958, 67, 172–176.
  3. Eagle W.W: Symptomatic elongated styloid process: report of 2 cases of styloid process-carotid artery syndrome with operation. Arch. Otolaryngol. 1949, 49, 490–503.
  4. Fini G., Gasparini G., Filippini F., Becelli R., Marcotuillo D.: The long styloid process syndrome or Eagle’s syndrome. J. Cranio-Maxillofac. Surg. 2000, 28, 123–127.
  5. Camarda A.J, Deschamps C., Forest D.: Styloid chain ossification: A discussion of etiology. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. 1989, 67, 508–514.
  6. Langlais R.P, VanDis M.L, Miles D.A.: Elongated and mineralized stylohyoid ligament complex: A proposed classification and report of a case of Eagle’s syndrome. Oral Surg. Oral Med. Oral Pathol. 1986, 61, 527–532.
  7. Thun-Szretter K., Jankowska M., Mąkal N., Dowżenko A.: Evaluation of styloid process on the panoramic radiographs – preliminary report. Czas. Stomatol. 2006, 59, 670–678 [in Polish].
  8. Różyło-Kalinowska I., Bożyk A., Wiktor A., Krasicka E., Borowicz J.: CBCT examination in diagnosing Eagle’s syndrome – case description. Magazyn Stomatol. 2013, 23, 5, 100–105 [in Polish].
  9. Bożyk A., Krawczyk J., Wiktor-Stoma A., Mieszkowski P., Borowicz J., Różyło-Kalinowska I.: The assessment of the size of the styloid process using CBCT. Eur. J. Med. Technol. 2014, 1, 2, 29–37.
  10. Gozil R., Yener N., Calguner E., Arac M., Tunc E., Bahcelioglu M.: Morphological characteristics of styloid process evaluated by computerized axial tomography. Ann. Anat. 2001, 183, 527–535.
  11. Kaufman S.M, Elzay R.P, Irish E.F: Styloid process variation. Radiologic and clinical study. Arch. Otolaryngol. 1970, 91, 460–463.
  12. More C.D, Asrani M.K.: Evaluation of the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs. Indian J. Radiol. Imaging. 2010, 20, 261–265.
  13. Mortellaro C., Biancucci P., Picciolo G., Vercellino V.: Eagle’s syndrome. Importance of a corrected diagnosis and adequate surgical treatment. J. Craniofac. Surg. 2002, 13, 755–758.
  14. Zaki H.S., Greco C.M., Rudy T.E., Kubinski J.A.: Elongated styloid process in a temporomandibular disorder sample: Prevalence and treatment outcome. J. Prosthet. Dent. 1996, 75, 399–405.