Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
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ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
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Dental and Medical Problems

2014, vol. 51, nr 3, July-September, p. 291–298

Publication type: editorial article

Language: English

Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Open Access

Human Papilloma Viruses in Oral Cancer – Review of the Literature

Rola wirusów brodawczaka ludzkiego w etiopatogenezie raków jamy ustnej – przegląd piśmiennictwa

Maciej Kielan1,A,B,C,D, Monika Anna Rutkowska1,A,B,C,D, Hanna Gerber2,E,F

1 Maxillofacial Surgery Ward, 4th Military Hospital, Wroclaw, Poland

2 Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland

Abstract

Long-term examination of squamous head and neck region carcinoma (HNSCC) epidemiology for years assumed that this is a homogeneous group of tumors. Only in recent years have they noticed some significant differences in epidemiological trends within the given anatomical regions of this area. The examination of the viral background of the cancerogenesis in this area treated mouth and larynx as a single anatomical structure, which led to overstatement of the significance of the human papilloma virus (HPV) in the scope of oral cavity cancers. The HPV prevalence within oral cavity cancers is a lot lower compared to larynx cavity cancers. The latest research points to some positive aspects stemming from a viral infection in the case of larynx cancer (deescalation of adjuvant therapy, among others) which seems to be of no significant value in preventing and curing HPV (+) carcinoma of the oral cavity. The prevalence of HPV in male patients suffering from head and neck cancers led to the extension of the current HPV prevention program, based on the vaccination of females to prevent the development of urogenital cancers, to include the recommendation of the use of the quadrivalent vaccine among young men. The work below sums up the current research regarding the role of the human papilloma viruses in oral cavity cancers.

Streszczenie

Wieloletnie badania nad epidemiologią raków płaskonabłonkowych w obrębie głowy i szyi (HNSCC) zakładały, że jest to jednorodna grupa guzów. Uważano, że obecność wirusów brodawczaka ludzkiego (HPV) w tym umiejscowieniu dotyczy niepalących, niepijących, młodych (< 40 lat), białych mężczyzn o wysokim statusie społecznym i bardziej wrażliwych na chemioi radioterapię. Dopiero w ostatnich latach zauważono znaczące różnice w trendach epidemiologicznych poszczególnych regionów anatomicznych w tej okolicy. Badania nad wirusowym podłożem kancerogenezy tego obszaru nie oddzielały od siebie regionu jamy ustnej od gardła, co w konsekwencji doprowadziło do przeszacowania rzeczywistego znaczenia wirusa HPV w nowotworach jamy ustnej. Wykrywalność HPV w rakach jamy ustnej jest o wiele mniejsza niż w rakach gardła. W świetle aktualnych badań pozytywne aspekty wynikające z infekcji wirusowej w rakach gardła (m.in. deeskalacja terapii adjuwantowej) wydają się nie mieć znaczenia w profilaktyce i terapii raków HPV (+) jamy ustnej. W pracy przedstawiono najbardziej współczesne badania dotyczące roli wirusa HPV w rakach jamy ustnej.

Key words

cancer, oral cavity, etiology, HPV

Słowa kluczowe

jama ustna, rak, nowotwór, HPV, etiopatogeneza

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