Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
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ISSN 1644-387X (print)
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Dental and Medical Problems

2014, vol. 51, nr 2, April-June, p. 165–171

Publication type: editorial article

Language: English

Creative Commons BY-NC-ND 3.0 Open Access

Molar-Incisor Hypomineralisation – Etiology, Prevalence, Clinical Picture and Treatment – Review

Hipomineralizacja trzonowcowo-siekaczowa – etiologia, częstość występowania, obraz kliniczny i leczenie – przegląd piśmiennictwa

Urszula Kaczmarek1,A,B,C,D,E,F, Aleksander Jaworski1,B

1 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Pedodontics, Wroclaw Medical University, Wrocław, Poland

Abstract

Molar-incisor-hypomineralization (MIH) is a clinical entity manifested by a developmental disturbance of the enamel of a systemic origin. The abnomality can affect one or more first permanent molars and, usually less frequently, one or more incisors. The aim of the paper was to describe the prevalence, etiological factors, clinical manifestation and the treatment of MIH in children based on the papers published in the last 10 years. Moreover, the diagnostic criteria and the severity of MIH accepted by EAPD were described. It was found that MIH prevalence greatly varies in the population of different countries ranging from 2.8 to 40.2%. MIH being a quatitative defect of enamel manifests as localized demarcated opacities whitish-yellow or yellowish-brown colour. Post-eruptive enamel breakdown can occur soon after the tooth eruption, revealing irregular decay which is prone to caries development. The condition is caused by various prenatal, perinatal and postnatal environmental factors disturbing the mineralization process of the enamel. The hypomineralized enamel in MIH teeth reveals a high degree of porosity extending from enamel-dentine junction to the normal cervical enamel and lower hardness and some differences in chemical composition. The treatment options of the abnomality are related to the severity of the enamel defect and range from prevention and reconstruction to extraction.

Streszczenie

Hipomineralizacja trzonowcowo-siekaczowa (MIH) jest oddzielną jednostką chorobową objawiającą się rozwojowym zaburzeniem szkliwa pochodzenia systemowego. Nieprawidłowością może być objęty jeden lub więcej stałych zębów pierwszych trzonowych i zwykle rzadziej jeden lub więcej zębów siecznych. Celem pracy jest przedstawienie częstości występowania, czynników etiologicznych, obrazu klinicznego i leczenia MIH u dzieci na podstawie przeglądu prac opublikowanych w ostatnich 10 latach. Podano ponadto kryteria diagnostyki i ciężkości MIH zaakceptowane przez EAPD. Wykazano, że częstość występowania MIH wykazuje znaczne zróżnicowanie w populacjach różnych krajów i wynosi 2,8–40,2%. MIH, będąc jakościowym defektem szkliwa, manifestuje się jako odgraniczona nieprzezierność koloru białawożółtego lub żółtawobrązowego. Poerupcyjne odłamanie szkliwa może wystąpić wkrótce po wyrznięciu zęba, ujawniając nieregularny ubytek, który jest podatny na rozwój próchnicy. Zaburzenie jest spowodowane różnymi prenatalnymi, perinatalnymi i postnatalnymi czynnikami środowiskowymi, zaburzającymi proces mineralizacji szkliwa. Hipozmineralizowane szkliwo w zębach dotkniętych MIH wykazuje dużą porowatość szerzącą się od połączenia szkliwno-zębinowego do prawidłowego szkliwa w rejonie przyszyjkowym, mniejszą twardość i różnice w składzie chemicznym. Opcje leczenia tej nieprawidłowości zależą od ciężkości zmiany i wahają się od zapobiegania i odbudowy do ekstrakcji.

Key words

molar-incisor, hypomineralization, prevalence, diagnosis, etiology

Słowa kluczowe

hipomineralizacja trzonowcowo-siekaczowa, frekwencja, diagnoza, etiologia

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