Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
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ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
Periodicity – quarterly

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Dental and Medical Problems

2011, vol. 48, nr 2, April-June, p. 236–242

Publication type: review article

Language: Polish

Mediatory reakcji immunologiczno-zapalnej jako biomarkery zapaleń przyzębia

Mediators of Immuno-Inflammatory Reaction as Biomarkers of Periodontitis

Łukasz Konopka1,, Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk1,

1 Zakład Immunologii Doświadczalnej Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Łodzi

Streszczenie

Zapalenie tkanek w przebiegu chorób przyzębia jest modulowane przez odpowiedź gospodarza na gromadzącą się płytkę bakteryjną w szczelinie lub kieszonce dziąsłowej i prowadzi do destrukcji aparatu zawieszeniowego zęba. Tradycyjna diagnostyka periodontologiczna jest oparta niemal wyłącznie na ocenie klinicznej i radiologicznej. Obecnie sugeruje się, że miejscowa odpowiedź organizmu w przebiegu chorób przyzębia mogłaby być ewaluowana na podstawie analizy płynu kieszonki dziąsłowej (GCF). Badanie czynników humoralnych występujących w G CF może mieć dużą wartość diagnostyczną, gdyż GCF jest źródłem wielu czynników biorących udział w reakcji immunologiczno-zapalnej. Obecność i odpowiednie stężenia czynników humoralnych w G CF może znaleźć zastosowanie w ocenie aktywności choroby przyzębia oraz wyników zastosowanej terapii. W pracy przedyskutowano przydatność diagnostyczną białek ostrej fazy oraz kalprotektyny, białka uważanego za marker chorób zapalnych. Autorzy opisują również mediatory lipidowe reakcji immunologiczno-zapalnej, tj. prostaglandynę E2, leukotrien B4 oraz czynnik aktywujący płytki. Określono także użyteczność diagnostyczną neopteryny, wczesnego i przydatnego markera odporności komórkowej oraz neuropeptydów.

Abstract

Tissue inflammation during periodontal diseases is mediated by host response to the accumulation of plaque in the gingival crevice/pocket, leading to destruction of supporting structures of the teeth. Traditional diagnosis of periodontal disease is based almost solely on clinical parameters and radiography. Nowadays, it is suggested that local host response in periodontal disease can be evaluated by biochemical analysis of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). The study of GCF components offer great diagnostic potential as a source of factors that may be involved in immunoinflammatory reaction. The presence and level of host-derived humoral factors in GCF may have great value in evaluating both periodontal disease activity and the outcome of periodontal therapy. In this review diagnostic utility of acute-phase protein, as well as calprotectin, the protein that is thought to be a marker of inflammatory diseases, is discussed. Authors also describe phospholipid mediators of inflammatory and immune reactions, that is prostaglandin E2, leukotriene C4 and platelet activating factor. Usefulness of neopterin, an early and valuable marker of cellular immunity, and neuropeptides is characterized, as well.

Słowa kluczowe

zapalenie przyzębia, płyn kieszonki dziąsłowej, biomarkery

Key words

periodontitis, gingival crevicular fluid, biological markers

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