Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
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ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
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Dental and Medical Problems

2011, vol. 48, nr 1, January-March, p. 80–85

Publication type: review article

Language: English

Hemifacial Microsomia – Review of the Literature

Połowiczy niedorozwój twarzy – przegląd piśmiennictwa

Maria Mielnik-Błaszczak1,, Katarzyna Olszewska1,

1 Chair and Department of Paedodontics, Medical University of Lublin, Poland

Abstract

Hemifacial microsomia (HFM) is the most frequently encountered form of isolated facial asymmetry. It is a congenital facial deformity involving the structures of the first and second pharyngeal arches: maxilla, mandible, external and middle ear, facial and trigeminal nerves, muscles of mastication and overlying soft tissue. Intraoral manifestations include: malocclusion, tooth discrepancies, agenesis of teeth, supernumerary teeth, enamel and dentin malformations, delay in tooth development. After cleft lip and palate, HFM is the most common craniofacial malformation. The occurrence of HFM is between 1 in 3000 and 1 in 5600 births. Males appear to be more frequently affected than females and the right side is affected more often than the left side. Although HFM refers to one half of the face, the condition is bilateral in 31% of the cases. Due to unilateral deficiency of the mandible and lower face, patients with HFM have specific dental needs that require restorative, orthodontic and surgical correction. The treatment always requires an interdisciplinary approach including at least maxillofacial surgery and orthodontics. The article provides a discussion on the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of HFM.

Streszczenie

Połowiczy niedorozwój twarzy jest drugą co do częstości, po rozszczepach podniebienia pierwotnego i wtórnego, wrodzoną wadą rozwojową części twarzowej czaszki i najczęstszą przyczyną asymetrii w obrębie twarzy. Zaburzenia dotyczą struktur wywodzących się z pierwszego i drugiego łuku skrzelowego i charakteryzują się jednostronnym niedorozwojem szczęki, żuchwy, ucha zewnętrznego i środkowego, nerwu trójdzielnego i twarzowego, mięśni żucia i tkanek miękkich. Wewnątrzustnie stwierdza się: wady zgryzu, wady zębowe, braki zawiązków zębów po stronie zaburzenia, obecność zębów nadliczbowych, hipoplazję szkliwa i opóźnione wyrzynanie zębów. Zaburzenie to występuje z częstością 1/3000–1/5600 urodzeń, dotyczy częściej płci męskiej i w większości przypadków występuje po prawej stronie. W 31% niedorozwój twarzy występuje obustronnie. Leczenie pacjentów z połowiczym niedorozwojem twarzy jest interdyscyplinarne, wymagające współpracy lekarzy różnych dziedzin medycyny i stomatologii. W pracy przedstawiono najnowsze poglądy na temat etiologii, diagnostyki i leczenia HFM.

Key words

hemifacial microsomia, asymmetry, distraction osteogenesis

Słowa kluczowe

połowiczy niedorozwój twarzy, asymetria, osteogeneza dystrakcyjna

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