Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
Index Copernicus (ICV 2020) – 128.41
MEiN – 70 pts
CiteScore (2021) – 2.0
JCI – 0.5
Average rejection rate (2021) – 81.35%
ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
Periodicity – quarterly

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Dental and Medical Problems

2009, vol. 46, nr 1, January-March, p. 94–103

Publication type: review article

Language: Polish

Znaczenie Toll−podobnych receptorów w patogenezie zapaleń przyzębia

The Role of Toll−Like Receptors in Pathogenesis of Periodontitis

Dariusz Chrzęszczyk1,, Tomasz Konopka2,

1 Staż podyplomowy w Stomatologicznym Centrum Transferu Technologii we Wrocławiu

2 Katedra i Zakład Periodontologii AM we Wrocławiu

Streszczenie

TLR jako receptory wrodzonej odporności immunologicznej mają ogromne znaczenie w zachowaniu równowagi między układem odpornościowym gospodarza a inwazją drobnoustrojów. Rozpoznając molekularne wzorce związane z patogenami (PAMP – Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns), uruchamiają wiele mechanizmów wewnątrz komórki, mających na celu obronę przed atakiem bakterii, zwykle przez wydzielanie cytokin prozapalnych. Zaburzenie ich funkcji przez polimorfizmy genetyczne zmienia podatność organizmu na zakażenia. Wobec znaczącej roli tych receptorów dla interakcji mikrobiota–czynniki gospodarza wzbudzają one zainteresowanie w etiopatogenezie zapaleń przyzębia. Celem pracy jest przegląd współczesnego piśmiennictwa na temat poszczególnych receptorów Toll−podobnych oraz znaczenia ich polimorfizmów dla powstania i przebiegu zapalenia przyzębia. Mimo licznych badań, złożoność procesów zachodzących w wyniku stymulacji TLR pozostaje nie w pełni wyjaśniona, a wiele wyników dotyczących ich znaczenia w etiopatogenezie zapaleń przyzębia jest sprzecznych. Wydaje się bardzo celowe prowadzenie dalszych badań nad ekspresją i polimorfizmami receptorów Toll−podobnych (zwłaszcza TLR2 i 4) w celu określania stopnia ryzyka zapadalności na przewlekłe i agresywne zapalenia przyzębia. Być może to jest właśnie trop, umożliwiający wykrycie czynnika prognostycznego dla tych chorób.

Abstract

Toll−like receptors (TLRs) as receptors of innate immunity play a crucial role in sustaining the balance between the immune system of the host and microorganisms. They recognize pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and activate a range of mechanisms within a cell which aim at defending the cell against bacteria by producing proinflammatory cytokines. When their functioning is impaired by genetic polymorphisms the susceptibility of the organism to infections is changed. Due to the significance of TLRs for microbiota−host factors interactions, TLRs are an object of great interest in the study related to the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis. The aim of this paper is to survey the contemporary literature on various TLRs and the importance of their polymorphisms for the onset and progression of periodontitis. Despite numerous studies, the complexity of processes triggered by TLRs stimulation still has not been fully explained and the findings of many studies of their importance in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis are contradictory. Therefore it seems worthwhile to conduct further research into the expression and polymorphisms of TLRs (in particular TLR 2 and TLR 4) in order to determine the risk of developing chronic and aggressive periodontitis. This in turn may help to discover the prognosticating factor of both types of periodontitis.

Słowa kluczowe

receptory Toll−podobne, zapalenie, zapalenie przyzębia, patogeneza

Key words

Toll−like receptors, inflammation, periodontitis, pathogenesis

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