Dental and Medical Problems

Dent Med Probl
Index Copernicus (ICV 2020) – 128.41
MEiN – 70 pts
CiteScore (2021) – 2.0
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ISSN 1644-387X (print)
ISSN 2300-9020 (online)
Periodicity – quarterly

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Dental and Medical Problems

2011, vol. 48, nr 2, April-June, p. 261–266

Publication type: review article

Language: English

Czynniki środowiskowe wpływające na powstawanie rozszczepu – przegląd piśmiennictwa

The Environmental Factors Influencing Cleft – Literature Review

Luca Dalla Libera1,, Kintan Patel2,, Millaray Santana2,

1 Student of Padova Medical University, Italy

2 Student’s Scientific Society of Dentofacial Anomalies, Wroclaw Medical University, Poland

Abstract

This paper presents a review on clefts to understand etiology and environmental influences towards this anomaly. Clefts are the most common craniofacial abnormalities resulting from the incomplete development of the lip and/ or palate in the first trimester of pregnancy (4th to 12th week of pregnancy). The etiology is multifactoral, with a very strong genetic component. The family occurrence of clefts have been proved. The fusion between the lateral palatine processes is very complicated and correlated process. Fetal development may be disturbed by many environmental factors and the exposure of the pregnant woman to them. The crucial ones are: drinking alcohol, smoking, radiation, diseases of mother, working in harmful environment, use of drugs and medicaments. Clefts have been growing in numbers because of advanced age of pregnant women and increased exposure to environmental risk factors. As fusion of the cleft occurs early in the pregnancy, the prevalence is very difficult, since most women are unaware of pregnancy in its early stage.

Streszczenie

Praca zawiera wiadomości dotyczące rozszczepów, ma na celu zrozumienie ich etiologii i wpływu środowiska na powstawanie tej wady rozwojowej. Rozszczepy są najczęściej występującą anomalią rozwojową w obrębie twarzy, wynikającą z niedokończonego rozwoju wargi i/lub podniebienia w pierwszym trymestrze ciąży (4–12 tygodnia ciąży). Etiologia rozszczepów jest wieloczynnikowa, z silnie zaznaczoną komponentą genetyczną. Udowodniono rodzinne występowanie rozszczepów. Połączenie się dwóch wyrostków podniebiennych jest bardzo skomplikowanym i złożonym procesem. Rozwój płodu może być zaburzony z powodu wielu czynników środowiskowych i narażenia na nie kobiety w ciąży. Najważniejsze z nich to: spożywanie alkoholu, palenie papierosów, narażenie na promieniowanie rentgenowskie, choroby ciężarnej, praca w szkodliwych warunkach, używanie narkotyków i leków. Coraz częstsze występowanie wady rozwojowej może wynikać z późnego wieku matek i zwiększonego narażenia na szkodliwe czynniki środowiskowe. Ponieważ rozszczepy powstają na wczesnych etapach życia płodowego, przeciwdziałanie ich powstawaniu jest niezwykle trudne, gdyż większość kobiet nie jest świadoma ciąży w jej początkowej fazie.

Key words

clefts, etiology

Słowa kluczowe

rozszczepy, etiologia

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